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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of hospitalized laboratory-confirmed influenza cases of the Vigilancia Integrada Comunitaria (VICo) Respiratory Surveillance System, 2008–2012

From: Hospitalization and death among patients with influenza, Guatemala, 2008–2012

Characteristics Guatemala Cityan = 60 Quetzaltenango (Xela) n = 224 Santa Rosa (Cuilapa) n = 162 Total n = 446 p-value
Age (years)
 Median 1.2 5.9 2.1 2.4 < 0.01b
 Mean 4.5 24.3 15.3 18.3
 Range 0.06–83.3 0.04–89.8 0.03–80.9 0.02–83.6
Age Group
 0–2 38 (63) 86 (38) 81 (50) 205 (46) < 0.01c
  > 2–5 18 (30) 25 (11) 13 (8) 56 (13)
  > 5–15 0 13 (6) 21 (13) 34 (8)
  > 15–50 2 (3) 44 (20) 25 (15) 71 (16)
  > 50–65 1 (2) 26 (12) 9 (6) 36 (8)
  > 65 1 (2) 30 (13) 13 (8) 44 (10)
Sex
 Male 30 (50) 132 (59) 92 (57) 254 (57) 0.46c
Ethnicity
 Indigenous 5 (8) 146 (69) 6 (4) 157 (36) < 0.01c
 Ladino 55 (92) 65 (31) 155 (96) 275 (64)
Monthly Income
 ≤ Q1,000e 5 (8) 109 (64) 121 (75) 235 (53) < 0.01c
  > Q1,000 54 (90) 62 (28) 40 (25) 156 (35)
 Missing 1 (2) 53 (24) 1 (0.6) 55 (12)
Parent’s educationf for children under five (n = 261)
 None 5 (9) 23 (22) 26 (28) 54 (21) < 0.01c
 Primary 41 (73) 67 (63) 67 (72) 175 (69)
 Secondary 10 (18) 16 (15) 0 (0) 26 (10)
Adult patient’s education (n = 185)
 None 1 (25) 24 (21) 20 (29) 45 (24) 0.03d
 Primary 3 (75) 51 (45) 21 (31) 75 (41)
 Secondary 0 (0) 15 (13) 3 (4) 18 (10)
 Missing 0 (0) 23 (20) 24 (35) 47 (25)
  1. a Instituto Guatemalteca Seguridad Social, Zona 9
  2. b Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test for equal median
  3. c Chi-square
  4. d Fisher’s exact test
  5. e Q = Quetzal with exchange rate during study of approximately 7.8 Q per dollar; Q1,000 = $128.21
  6. f Primary School is up through 6th grade (12 years of age), then Basic (12–15) and high school is up to 17 or 18