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Table 4 Estimated annual costs (in millions of 2014 US$) of influenza-associated illnesses in Kenya

From: The cost of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Kenya

Cost Item (per episode) Hospitalized patients Outpatients
Best-case scenario Worst-case scenario Best-case scenario Worst-case scenario
Estimated cases Cost (US$d Millions) (95% CIc) Estimated cases Cost (US$d Millions) (95% CIc) Estimated cases Cost (US$d Millions) (95% CIc) Estimated cases Cost (US$d Millions) (95% CIc)
Children < 5 yearsa 17,875   31,115   144,322   383,977  
 Total direct costs   1.34 (1.10–1.63)   2.34 (1.92–2.84)   1.25 (1.09–1.41)   3.33 (2.89–3.76)
  Facility-based medical costs   1.08 (0.89–1.34)   1.87 (1.54–2.33)   0.62 (0.59–0.66)   1.65 (1.56–1.75)
  Transportation costs   0.08 (0.06–0.12)   0.15 (0.10–0.21)   0.07 (0.05–0.09)   0.18 (0.13–0.24)
  Other costsb   0.20 (0.13–0.27)   0.34 (0.23–0.47)   0.66 (0.48–0.85)   1.76 (1.27–2.25)
 Total indirect   0.70 (0.56–0.85)   1.21 (0.97–1.48)   2.01 (1.23–2.97)   5.35 (3.28–7.91)
 Total costs   2.04 (1.73–2.41)   3.55 (3.01–4.19)   3.09 (2.32–4.07)   8.23 (6.18–10.84)
Persons ≥5 yearsa 7279   14,557   156,491   946,223  
 Total direct costs   0.55 (0.41–0.69)   1.10 (0.81–1.37)   0.93 (0.78–1.11)   5.64 (4.72–6.69)
  Facility-based medical costs   0.41 (0.32–0.53)   0.81 (0.63–1.07)   0.69 (0.64–0.75)   4.20 (3.89–4.55)
  Transportation costs   0.05 (0.02–0.09)   0.10 (0.04–0.18)   0.04 (0.01–0.08)   0.24 (0.05–0.50)
  Other costsb   0.07 (0.04–0.11)   0.15 (0.07–0.22)   0.23 (0.10–0.40)   1.42 (0.63–2.43)
 Total indirect   0.43 (0.26–0.65)   0.86 (0.51–1.30)   1.69 (1.09–2.40)   10.24 (6.61–14.49)
 Total costs   1.00 (0.71–1.30)   1.99 (1.42–2.59)   2.64 (1.99–3.38)   15.96 (12.02–20.43)
All ages 25,154   45,672   300,813   1,330,200  
 Total direct costs   1.89 (1.60–2.25)   3.44 (2.90–4.09)   2.32 (2.08–2.58)   10.24 (9.18–11.40)
 Total indirect   1.06 (0.86–1.28)   1.92 (1.55–2.33)   3.87 (2.71–5.24)   17.11 (11.98–23.17)
 Total costs   2.96 (2.57–3.41)   5.37 (4.66–6.19)   5.96 (4.80–7.49)   26.35 (21.22–33.14)
  1. aEstimated using published rates of influenza-associated disease in Kenya [hospitalization rate (< 5 years = 2.7–4.7 per 1000; ≥5 years = 0.2–0.4 per 1000) and outpatient rate (< 5 years = 13.0–58.0 per 1000; ≥5 years = 4.3–26.0 per 1000)]; bCombines costs for childcare, and healthcare seeking prior and after hospitalization or outpatient visit; cMean cost and 95% confidence intervals estimated using 1000 bootstrap samples
  2. d1 US$ = 90 Kenya Shillings (2014)
  3. Best-case scenario: Assuming the lowest published incidence rate of influenza-associated illness
  4. Worst-case scenario: Assuming the highest published incidence rate of influenza-associated illness