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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included the review

From: The use of self-management strategies for problem gambling: a scoping review

Authors; Country Method N, sex Age in years M (SD), Rangea Race/ Ethnicity Clinical Setting (Y/N)b Special Populationc Health Comorbidities with Problem Gambling
Avery et al. (2008) [41]; Not reported Mixed N = 136; 100% female 18–24 (2.2%); 25–34 (15.4%); 35–44 (28.7%); 45–54 (35.3%); 55–64 (11.8%); 65+ (3.7%); Missing (2.9%) White (91.9%), African-American (2.9%), Asian American (2.2%), Hispanic (0.7%), Other (1.5%), Missing (0.7%) No No Mental illness (depression, bipolar disorder and dysthymia), drug addiction, alcoholism
Boughton et al. (2016) [42]; Canada Mixed N = 25; 100% female 56.0 White (85%) No No Emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, experiences of loss, trauma, mental health issues (depression, anxiety, panic, manic depression, anger), suicide ideation
Campos et al. (2016) [43]; United Statesd Quant. N = 87; 76% male, 24% female 43.4 (10.8); 45.1 (11.0) White (44%), African American (32%), Asian (12%), Other (12%) No Low income Generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, dysthymia, psychotic disorders, alcohol and/ or marijuana abuse/ dependence
Casey et al. (2017) [44]; Australiae Quant. N = 174; 41% male, 59% female 44.8 (9.0); 44.1 (10.5); 44.2 (9.5) White (81%), Asian (2%), Other (17%); White (76%), Asian (6%), Other (18%); White (82%), Asian (2%), Other (16%) No No Depression, anxiety and stress, alcohol use
Castren et al. (2013) [45]; Finland Quant. N = 471; 69% male, 31% females 34.5 (11.8) Not reported Yes No Alcohol consumption, depression
Cunningham et al. (2012) [46]; Canada Quant. N = 176f, 51% male, 49% female 47.6 (13.4) Not reported No No Not reported
Forsstrom et al. (2017) [47]; Sweden Qual. N = 20; 95% male, 5% female 42.15 (12.70) Not reported No No Not reported
Grant et al. (2011) [48]; United Statesg Quant. N = 68 (35 follow-up); 62% male, 38% female 49.55; 48.51 White (94%) No No Mood disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, depressive disorder not otherwise specified), impulse control disorder (compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, or kleptomania), anxiety disorder (social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder), eating disorder
Hayer and Meyer (2011) [49]; Australia, Germany, Switzerland Quant. N = 152; 72% male; 28% female 41.3 Not reported No No Not reported
Hing, Russell, Gainsbury et al. (2015) [50]; Australia Quant. N = 620; 80% male, 20% female 37.6 (13.1) Not reported No No Psychological distress
Hing, Sproston et al. (2017) [51]; Australia Quant. N = 860; 68% male, 32% female 49.5 (15.9) Not reported No No Not reported
Hing, Cherney, et al. (2015) [52]; Australia Qual. N = 25; 100% male 39.9 (14.1) Not reported No No Not reported
Hing, Russell, Tolchard, et al. (2015) [53]; Australia Quant. N = 103; 56% male, 44% female 66.2 (6.5) Not reported No No Alcoholism
Hodgins (2005) [54]; Canada Quant. N = 102; 48% male, 52% female 46 (9) Canadian (89%), Native (2%), Other (7%) No No Not reported
Hodgins et al. (2009) [55]; Canada Quant. N = 314; 45% male, 55% female Not reported Not reported No No Mental health disorders, alcohol abuse or dependence, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (lifetime)
Hodgins et al. (2001) [56]; Canada Quant. N = 102; 48% male, 52% female 46 (9) Canadian (89%), Native (2%), Other (7%) No No Not reported
Hodgins et al. (2007) [57]; Canada Quant. N = 169; 58% male, 42% female 32 (11.2) Canadian (89%), Other (7%), Native/ Metis (4%) No No Depression, alcohol or drug addiction, emotional/ mental health difficulties
Hodgins, Currie, el-Guebaly, Peden et al. (2004) [58]; Canadah Quant. N = 102 (52 follow-up); 44% male, 56% female 46.0 (10.0) English Canadian (90%), Aboriginal (2%), French Canadian (2%), Other (6%) No No Not reported
Jauregui et al. (2017) [59]; Spaini Quant. N = 274; 100% male 39.3 (11.8); 33.4 (11.9) Not reported Yes No Depression, anxiety
Labrie et al. (2012) [60]; United Statesj Quant. N = 248; 52% male, 48% female; 66% male, 34% female 44.0 (14.0); 49.0 (10.0) White (74%), Hispanic (15%); White (66%), Hispanic (3%) No Rural Mental/ emotional problems, drug/ alcohol problems
Ladouceur et al. (2000) [61]; Canada Quant. N = 220; 62% male, 38% female 41.0 Not reported No No Not reported
Ladouceur et al. (2007) [62]; Canada Quant. N = 161; 60% males; 40% females 43.5 (12.3) Not reported No No Not reported
Lalande and Ladouceur (2011) [63]; Canadak Mixed N = 20; N = 65; 67% male, 33% female; 66% male, 34% female 47.7 (13.4); 43.6 (15.2) Not reported No Low-income Not reported
Linardatou et al. (2014) [64]; Greecel Mixed N = 45; 95.5% male, 4.5% female; 90% male; 10% female 42.6 Not reported No No Depression, anxiety, stress
Luquiens et al. (2016) [65]; Not reported Quant. N = 1122; 92% male; 8% female 34.7 Not reported No No Not reported
Martin (2013) [66]; United States Quant. N = 60; 60% male; 40% female Underclassmen (Freshman, Sophomore) (88.3%); Upperclassmen (Junior/ Senior) (11.7%) Caucasian (non-Hispanic) (71.7%), African American (20%); Hispanic or Latino (5%), American Indian or Alaskan Native (1.7%), Other (1.7%) No No Not reported
Moore et al. (2012) [67]; Australia Quant. N = 303; 39% male, 61% female 26.4 (10.1) Australian (79%), European (14%), Asian (7%) No No Not reported
Nelson et al. (2010) [68]; United States Quant. N = 113; 45% male, 55% female 45.0 (10.0) White (80.5%), Black or African-American (16.8%), Other (2.7%), Hispanic or Latino (0.9%) No No Substance use, mental health problems
Subramaniam et al. (2017) [69]; Singapore Qual. N = 25; 72% male, 28% females 66.2 (6.5) Chinese (64%), Indian (16%), Other (12%), Malay (8%) No Adults (60+) Not reported
Toneatto et al. (2014) [70]; Canadam Quant. N = 18; 44.4% male, 55.6% female; 66.7% male, 33.3% female 41.7 (11.0); 46.6 (11.8) Not reported No No Current emotional distress
Townshend (2007) [71]; New Zealand Quant. N = 35; 60% male; 40% female 18–73 Not reported Yes No Head injury, substance use disorder, other mental health disorder
  1. aValues reported when available
  2. bClinical setting includes participants (full or subset of sample) recruited from treatment centers, in-patient programs, residential treatments or therapist-facilitated out-patient treatment programs
  3. cSpecial designation includes participants (full or subset of sample) who belong to populations such as veteran, homeless/in poverty, correctional or elderly
  4. dAge information provided by condition (workbook only; workbook plus therapist guidance)
  5. eAge and Race/ Ethnicity information provided by condition (internet-based CBT, internet-based MFS, waitlist, respectively)
  6. fCompleted at least one follow-up
  7. gAge information provided by condition (imaginal desensitization; Gambler’s Anonymous control)
  8. hSame sample as Hodgins et al. (2001)
  9. iAge and Race/ Ethnicity information provided by condition (pathological gambling group; non-pathological gambling group)
  10. jSex, Age and Race/ Ethnicity information provided by sample (Nevada, US; Massachusetts, US)
  11. kNs presented by study (Pilot; Main Study); Sex and Age provided by sample (problem gambling subset; non-problem gambling subset)
  12. lSex presented by condition (intervention; control)
  13. mSex, Age information presented by condition (Mindfulness plus CBT; waitlist)