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Table 1 Distribution of healthy women and cervical cancer patient participants by socio-demographic characteristics

From: Sociodemographic inequities in cervical cancer screening, treatment and care amongst women aged at least 25 years: evidence from surveys in Harare, Zimbabwe

Participant type Healthy women, N = 143 Cervical cancer patients N = 134
Socio-demographic variables [N = 143]
(%)
Ever screened [n = 42]
(%)
p-value [N = 134]
(%)
Treated [n = 92]
(%)
p-value
Province of residence
 Manicaland 17 (12) 14 (15) 0.193
 Masvingo 9 (7) 8 (9) 0.176
 Midlands 7 (5) 5 (6) 0.871
 Matebeleland North 1 (1) 1 (1) 0.498
 Mashonaland Central 5 (4) 4 (4) 0.671
 Mashonaland East 24 (18) 16 (17) 0.871
 Mashonaland West 5 (4) 3 (3) 0.671
 Harare 143 (100) 42 (100) 0.120 66 (49) 41 (45) 0.217
Residence
 Urban 93 (65) 36 (86) 0.001 74 (55) 47 (51) 0.154
 Urban_Low density 31 (21.7) 20 (48) < 0.001 3 (2) 3 (3) 0.237
 Urban_High density 31 (21.7) 4 (9) 0.023 67 (50) 40 (44) 0.025
 Urban_Medium density 31 (21.7) 12 (29) 0.197 4 (3) 4 (4) 0.170
 Rural 50 (35) 6 (14) 0.001 60 (45) 45 (49) 0.154
Age (years) Mean (35) Mean (37)   Mean (52) Mean (53)  
 25–34 78 (55) 21 (50) 0.481 6 (4) 4 (4) 0.914
 35–44 40 (28) 8 (19) 0.981 31 (23) 19 (21) 0.313
 45–54 22 (15) 12 (29) 0.434 41 (31) 26 (28) 0.642
 55 or more 3 (2) 1 (2) 0.879 56 (42) 43 (47) 0.180
Ethnicity
 Shona 133 (93) 39 (92.8) 0.964 130 (97) 88 (96) 0.170
 Ndebele 6 (4) 1 (2.4) 0.485 2 (1) 2 (2) 0.336
 Other 4 (3) 2 (4.8) 0.358 2 (2) 2 (2)
Marital status
 Married/co-habiting 98 (69) 31 (74) 0.381 52 (39) 30 (33) 0.029
 Never married 17 (12) 3 (7) 0.258 1 (1) 1 (1) 0.498
 Widowed 13 (9) 2 (5) 0.246 59 (44) 44 (48) 0.190
 Divorced or separated 15 (10) 6 (14) 0.339 22 (16) 17 (18) 0.341
Religion
 Roman Catholic 24 (17) 7 (17) 0.981 34 (25) 24 (26) 0.779
 Protestant 22 (16) 11 (26) 0.021 24 (18) 21 (23) 0.028
 Pentecostal 56 (39) 11 (26) 0.040 34 (25) 21 (23) 0.316
 Apostolic sect 27 (19) 5 (12) 0.169 34 (25) 24 (26) 0.779
 Other 14 (9) 8 (19) 0.016 8 (7) 2 (2) 0.006
Education
 Primary 19 (13) 2 (5) 0.053 43 (32) 30 (33) 0.849
 Secondary 100 (70) 30 (71) 0.801 75 (56) 50 (54) 0.576
 Higher 24 (17) 10 (24) 0.147 6 (5) 5 (5) 0.428
 None 0 0 10 (7) 7 (8) 0.924
Household head education
 Primary 5 (3) 1 (2) 0.640 16 (12) 12 (13) 0.560
 Secondary 74 (52) 16 (38) 0.035 50 (37) 30 (33) 0.096
 Higher 54 (38) 23 (55) 0.007 14 (10) 12 (13) 0.146
 Not Applicable 10 (7) 2 (5) 0.500 5 (4) 37 (40) 0.194
 None 49 (37) 1 (1) 0.017
Occupation
 Unemployed 59 (41) 14 (33) 0.214 90 (67) 60 (65) 0.478
 Student 7 (5) 4 (10) 0.098 3 (2) 2 (2) 0.336
 Professional 14 (10) 7 (17) 0.074 3 (2) 3 (3) 0.620
 Police/Military/Security 5 (4) 3 (7) 0.126 12 (9) 9 (10) 0.137
 Trucker/transport business 1 (1) 1 (2) 0.120 1 (1) 2 (2)
 General worker 6 (4) 2 (5) 0.828 1 (1) 4 (5) 0.318
 Self employed 26 (18) 7 (17) 0.762 5 (4) 10 (11) 0.572
 Vendor 25 (17) 4 (9) 0.106 16 (12) 2 (2) 0.940
Occupation of household head
 Unemployed 9 (6) 2 (5) 0.627 25 (19) 15 (16) 0.301
 Farm worker 1 (1) 0 0.518 2 (1) 2 (2) 0.336
 Professional 52 (37) 23 (55) 0.003 23 (17) 20 (22) 0.038
 Police/Military/Security 11 (8) 3 (7) 0.874 5 (4) 5 (5) 0.124
 Trucker/transport business 15 (10) 5 (12) 0.722 1 (1) 0 0.137
 General worker 5 (4) 1 (2) 0.640 0 0 0.246
 Self employed 31 (22) 5 (12) 0.067 30 (22) 18 (20) 0.498
 Vendor 7 (5) 0 0.080 1 (1) 1 (1) 0.621
 Other 1 (1) 0 0.518 47 (35) 0
 Not applicable 8 (6) 3 (7) 0.874 0 31 (34)
Personal income (US$)
 No income 52 (36) 20 (48) 0.071 77 (57) 52 (57) 0.744
  < 200 51 (35) 7 (17) 0.002 32 (24) 23 (25) 0.653
 200–400 24 (17) 6 (14) 0.606 19 (14) 13 (14) 0.981
 430 or more 16 (12) 9 (21) 0.012 6 (4) 4 (4) 0.914
Household income (US$)
 No income 52 (36) 21 (50) 0.029 71 (53) 50 (55) 0.640
  < 600 55 (39) 8 (19) 0.002 53 (40) 35 (38) 0.597
 600–1000 16 (11) 4 (9) 0.684 6 (4) 4 (4) 0.914
 1200 or more 20 (14) 9 (23) 0.098 4 (3) 3 (3) 0.718
Medical insurance/aid
 Yes 50 (35) 25 (60) < 0.001 27 (20) 22 (24) 0.108
 No 93 (65) 17 (40) 107 (80) 70 (76)
Wealth quintiles
 Poorest 50 (35) 28 (67) < 0.001 7 (5) 6 (7) 0.318
 Poorer 22 (15) 6 (14) 0.814 32 (24) 23 (25) 0.653
 Middle 19 (13) 2 (5) 0.053 36 (27) 23 (25) 0.471
 Richer 30 (21) 3 (7) 0.009 26 (19) 15 (16) 0.179
 Richest 22 (16) 3 (7) 0.078 33 (25) 25 (27) 0.311
Sources of cervical cancer information
 Radio 94 (70) 30 (73) 0.753 31 (25) 23 (27) 0.868
 TV 20 (15) 8 (20) 0.747 27 (21) 19 (22) 0.935
 Health workers 8 (6) 0 57 (45) 36 (42) 0.776
 Other 13 (9) 3 (7) 0.911 11 (9) 8 (9)
Knowledge that cervical cancer is treatable
 Yes 106 (74) 38 (90) 0.040 113 (84) 81 (88) 0.433
 No 19 (13) 3 (7) 0.768 7 (5) 2 (2) 0.854
 Don’t 18 (13) 1 (3) 0.768 14 (11) 9 (10) 0.934
Number of visits to health facilities or doctors in previous 6 months
 None 46 (32) 4 (10) 0.358 _ _
 Once 30 (21) 6 (14) 0.695
 Twice 34 (24) 13 (31) 0.624
 Thrice or more 33 (23) 19 (45) 0.099
Have regular general practitioner (doctor)
 Yes 44 (31) 20 (48) 0.1900.128 _ _
 No 99 (69) 22 (52)
  1. Bold shows p value < =0.05 indicating statistical significance