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Table 6 Psychosocial and parental indicators of effectiveness at baseline (B) and 4 weeks after the intervention (F1) in the intervention (INT) and comparison (COM) group and the differences in change between the groups from B to F1 with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

From: Kids Out; evaluation of a brief multimodal cluster randomized intervention integrated in health education lessons to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior among eighth graders

  INT COM Between-group difference in change (95% CI)a)
B F1 B F1
Psychosocial indicators (Student questionnaire), N 561 585 749 716 INT = 486; COM = 646
Family norm, n (%)
• Walking or cycling to school (more often or as often as now) 265 (47.9) 327 (56.6) 354 (47.9) 372 (52.4) 3.6 (0.5 to 6.6)b)
• Leisure PA (more often or as often as now) 449 (80.2) 448 (77.4) 595 (80.2) 540 (76.2) −0.4 (−2.4 to 1.6)
• Screen time (sets limitations or hopes for reduce) 328 (59.3) 339 (59.2) 448 (60.7) 379 (53.9) 5.4 (3.3 to 7.4)c)
Short-term behavioral intention, mean (SD)
• Walking or cycling to school (0–5 days) 3.0 (2.3) 2.7 (2.3) 3.0 (2.4) 2.7 (2.4) 0.0 (−0.2 to 0.3)
• Leisure PA (0–7 days) 3.6 (2.0) 3.7 (1.9) 3.5 (1.9) 3.4 (1.9) 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6)
• Exceeding 2 h of screen time (0–7 days) 2.9 (2.2) 2.8 (2.2) 3.0 (2.2) 3.1 (2.2) −0.1 (− 0.4 to 0.1)
Confidence to execute the short-term intention, n (%)
• Walking or cycling to school (totally or quite confident) 455 (82.4) 482 (84.0) 632 (85.3) 595 (84.2) 2.6 (1.3 to 3.9)
• Leisure PA (totally or quite confident) 518 (92.5) 523 (91.4) 701 (94.2) 640 (90.8) 1.5 (−0.3 to 3.4)
• Reducing screen time if wanted (totally or quite confident) 446 (81.4) 482 (84.8) 618 (84.2) 594 (84.8) 1.5 (0.0 to 3.1)
Parental indicators (Parental questionnaire), N 401 327 558 401 INT = 277; COM = 362
Knowledge about PA recommendations, n (%)
• Correct answer on PAd) 365 (90.8) 303 (92.7) 508 (89.0) 356 (88.8) 1.6 (0.0 to 3.2)
• Cannot say 31 (7.7) 23 (7.0) 59 (10.6) 41 (10.2) 0.0 (−1.6 to 1.7)
Knowledge about screen time recommendations, n (%)
• Correct answere) 326 (83.4) 258 (82.4) 447 (81.4) 289 (77.7) 4.8 (2.3 to 7.2)2)
• Cannot say 12 (3.0) 15 (4.6) 25 (4.4) 30 (7.5) −0.1 (−2.8 to 2.7)
Family discussions on child’s…, n (%)
• …leisure PA (yes) 283 (70.6) 190 (58.5) 424 (74.3) 217 (55.4) 4.7 (−2.0 to 11.4)
• …school commuting (yes) 114 (28.8) 49 (15.5) 177 (31.3) 63 (16.5) 0.5 (−5.4 to 6.4)
• …on screen time (yes) 271 (67.8) 201 (62.4) 395 (69.1) 244 (61.9) 2.9 (−1.0 to 6.7)
Family efforts to influence on child’s…, n (%)
• …leisure PA (yes) 206 (51.8) 118 (37.9) 280 (48.9) 159 (41.7) −6.0 (−11.5 to −0.6)
• …walking and cycling to school (yes) 50 (12.8) 28 (9.3) 71 (12.6) 28 (7.7) −0.5 (−4.3 to 3.4)
• …screen time (yes) 227 (57.8) 182 (57.2) 348 (61.3) 224 (57.6) 0.8 (−2.1 to 3.6)
  1. a)Linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex and baseline value; teacher as random effect. Dichotomous variables were analyzed without adjustments or random effect correction but statistical levels were re-checked with generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) with same adjustments and random effect correction as used in non-dichotomous variables
  2. b)Statistical significance (p < 0.05) did not persist after GLMM
  3. c)Remained statistically significant after GLMM (p < 0.05)
  4. d)All answers ≥60 min a day were considered correct
  5. e)All answers < 2 h a day were considered correct