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Table 4 Questionnaire-based primary indicators of effectiveness at baseline (B) and 4 weeks after the intervention (F1) in the intervention (INT) and comparison (COM) group and the differences in change between the groups from B to F1 and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

From: Kids Out; evaluation of a brief multimodal cluster randomized intervention integrated in health education lessons to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior among eighth graders

  INT COM Between-group difference in change (95% CI)a)
B F1 B F1
n 564 585 751 716 INT = 500; COM = 662
Walking or cycling to school
• Walking or cycling as a primary transportation mode to school, n (%) 302 (53.5) 273 (46.8) 398 (53.1) 347 (48.6) −2.8 (−6.2 to 0.6)
• Weekly number of days walking or cycling to school (0–5 days), mean (SD) 3.0 (2.3) 2.8 (2.3) 3.0 (2.4) 2.8 (2.4) −0.0 (−0.2 to 0.2)
Leisure PA
• Weekly number of days with at least 1 h of brisk leisure PA (0-7 days), mean (SD) 3.6 (2.0) 3.7 (1.9) 3.5 (1.9) 3.4 (1.9) 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6)b)
• Meeting PA recommendations (yes), n (%)c) 43 (7.7) 53 (9.2) 50 (6.7) 34 (4.8) 4.1 (2.5 to 5.7)b)
Participation in organized sports (yes), n (%) 204 (36.6) 202 (35.1) 272 (36.9) 274 (38.8) −1.0 (−2.1 to 0.1)
• Times per week, mean (SD) 2.4 (2.3) 2.4 (2.4) 2.1 (2.1) 2.2 (2.3) −0.0 (−0.2 to 0.1)
• Weekly duration, mean (SD) 4.5 (5.5) 4.6 (5.5) 3.8 (4.9) 4.1 (6.0) −0.0 (− 0.4 to 0.4)
Screen time
• Weekly number of days with > 2 h of screen time (0–7 days), mean (SD) 3.2 (2.2) 3.1 (2.2) 3.4 (2.2) 3.4 (2.1) −0.1 (− 0.3 to 0.1)
  1. a)Linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex and baseline value; teacher as a random effect. Dichotomous variables were analyzed without adjustments and random effect correction but statistical levels were re-checked with generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) with same adjustments and random effect correction as used in non-dichotomous variables
  2. b)Remained statistically significant after GLMM (p < 0.05)
  3. c)At least 1 h of brisk physical activity on 7 days a week