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Table 5 Distribution of NCD risk factors in the study area

From: Designing a comprehensive Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) programme for hypertension and diabetes at primary health care level: evidence and experience from urban Karnataka, South India

   Tobacco use Alcohol usea Physical activityb At least 2 or more times Vegetables or fruits in a dayc
N Yes (%) No (%) p High (%) Low (%) None (%) P Adequate (%) Inadequate (%) p Yes (%) No (%) p
Total 1319 10.84 89.16   5.53 4.17 90.30   60.05 39.95   18.65 81.35  
Age
  < 35 years 524 6.30 93.70 <.001 3.63 2.29 94.08 <.001 64.50 35.50 <.001 79.77 20.23 0.489
35–49 475 11.58 88.42 5.68 4.42 89.89 62.74 37.26 82.32 17.68
50 and above 320 17.19 82.81 8.44 6.88 84.69 48.75 51.25 82.50 17.50
Education
  < 5 years 289 17.99 82.01 <.001 6.92 3.46 89.62 0.065 47.40 52.60 <.001 84.78 15.22 0.205
5–11 years 553 11.97 88.43 6.87 3.98 89.15 61.66 38.34 81.01 18.99
12 and above 477 5.66 94.34 3.14 4.82 92.03 65.83 34.17 79.66 20.34
Gender
Male 615 21.95 78.05 <.001 11.54 8.78 79.67 <.001 72.20 27.80 <.001 78.86 21.14 0.03
Female 704 1.14 98.86 0.28 0.14 99.57 49.43 50.57 83.52 16.48
Caste
scheduled caste and tribe (SC/ST) 169 14.20 85.80 0.132 6.51 5.92 87.57 0.385 61.54 38.46 0.671 81.66 18.34 0.913
Others 1150 10.35 89.65 5.39 3.91 90.70 59.83 40.17 81.30 18.70
  1. aHigh consumption is considered as consumption of 90 ml or more during one event of drinking
  2. bLess than at least 75 min of vigorous or 150 min of moderate physical activity per week is considered to be inadequate as per WHO STEPS guideline
  3. cAppropriate diet is considered as at least 5 or more times consumed fruits or vegetables/tubers/green leafy vegetables (WHO STEPs Guidelines). Since we did not find anyone, we used at-least 2 serves of fruits/ vegetables for analysis