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Table 3 Effects of indoor and outdoor air quality at age 9 months on emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems at age 3 years

From: The quality of air outside and inside the home: associations with emotional and behavioural problem scores in early childhood

  Emotional symptoms Conduct problems Hyperactivity problems
Coeff. (SE) 95% CI Coeff. (SE) 95% CI Coeff. (SE) 95% CI
Fixed effects
 Constant 0.90**(0.26) [0.39, 1.41] 3.70***(0.356) [3.00, 4.39] 3.96***(0.41) [3.15, 4.77]
 SO2 (deciles) 0.004(0.01) [−0.01, 0.02] 0.01(0.01) [− 0.01, 0.03] 0.02(0.01) [− 0.001, 0.05]
 NO2 (deciles) 0.01(0.01) [− 0.01, 0.02] 0.03*(0.01) [0.004, 0.06] 0.02(0.02) [−0.01, 0.50]
 Damp or condensation 0.09*(0.04) [0.002, 0.17] 0.16**(0.06) [0.04, 0.27] 0.03(0.07) [−0.10, 0.17]
 Secondhand smoke 0.16**(0.05) [0.07, 0.25] 0.59***(0.06) [0.47, 0.71] 0.37***(0.07) [0.23, 0.52]
 Green space 0.01(0.01) [−0.01, 0.02] 0.04**(0.01) [0.02, 0.07] 0.02(0.02) [−0.01, 0.05]
 Urban 0.07(0.05) [−0.04, 0.18] 0.08(0.08) [−0.07, 0.23] 0.003(0.09) [−0.17, 0.18]
 Age 0.08(0.07) [−0.06, 0.22] −0.36***(0.10) [− 0.55, − 0.16] 0.19(0.12) [−0.04, 0.41]
 Female 0.003(0.03) [−0.06, 0.06] −0.22***(0.04) [− 0.30, − 0.15] −0.60***(0.05) [− 0.70, − 0.51]
 Ethnicity (Ref: White)
 Mixed −0.04(0.08) [− 0.20, 0.13] 0.03(0.11) [− 0.19, 0.26] −0.01(0.13) [− 0.27, 0.25]
 Indian 0.26*(0.11) [0.04, 0.48] −0.02(0.16) [−0.32, 0.29] 0.16(0.18) [−0.20, 0.51]
 Pakistani/Bangladeshi 0.81***(0.09) [0.63, 0.99] −0.03(0.13) [−0.28, 0.21] 0.32*(0.15) [0.03, 0.61]
 Black −0.11(0.10) [−0.31, 0.08] − 0.32*(0.13) [− 0.58, − 0.06] −0.28(0.16) [− 0.58, 0.03]
 Other 0.23(0.18) [−0.12, 0.58] −0.32(0.24) [− 0.79, 0.15] −0.32(0.29) [− 0.88, 0.24]
 Low birth weight 0.18**(0.06) [0.06, 0.30] 0.04(0.09) [−0.13, 0.21] 0.53***(0.10) [0.33, 0.72]
 Mother is university-educated −0.16***(0.03) [−0.23, − 0.09] −0.31***(0.05) [− 0.40, − 0.22] −0.48***(0.06) [− 0.59, − 0.37]
 Household income −0.00***(0.00) [− 0.00, − 0.00] −0.001***(0.00) [− 0.001, − 0.001] −0.001***(0.00) [− 0.001, − 0.001]
 Maternal psychological distress 0.08***(0.00) [0.07, 0.09] 0.13***(0.01) [0.12, 0.14] 0.11***(0.01) [0.10, 0.12]
 Mother has good general health −0.17***(0.04) [−0.25, − 0.10] −0.25***(0.06) [− 0.36, − 0.15] −0.22**(0.06) [− 0.34, − 0.09]
Random effects
 Ward-level intercept variance (Level 2) 0.00(0.00) [0.00, 0.00] 0.01(0.01) [0.00, 0.09] 0.003(0.01) [0.00, 3.55]
 Child-level intercept variance (Level 1) 1.93***(0.03) [1.87, 1.99] 3.58***(0.05) [3.48, 3.69] 4.87***(0.07) [4.73,5.02]
  1. Notes. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001. Coefficients are unstandardised. All models are adjusted for the area strata