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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample stratified by being bothered by symptoms of depression (PHQ-2 ≥ 2)

From: Income and education predict elevated depressive symptoms in the general population: results from the Gutenberg health study

  Total sample (n = 12,484) Comparison p
PHQ-2 < 2
(9605/12484)
PHQ-2 ≥ 2
(2879/12484)
Age, years, mean ± SD 54.6 ± 10.9 (12484) 54.9 ± 11.0 (9605) 53.4 ± 10.6 (2879) < 0.0001*
Female, % (N) 48.5% (6054/12484) 46.4% (4456/9605) 55.5% (1598/2879) < 0.0001
Living with partner, yes, % (N) 82.1% (10,249/12483) 84% (8067/9604) 75.8% (2182/2879) < 0.0001
School education, % (N)
 9 years 37.4% (4665/12484) 37.1% (3564/9605) 38.2% (1101/2879) 0.139
 10 years 23.4% (2919/12484) 23.2% (2230/9605) 23.9% (689/2879) 0.221
 12–13 years 38.5% (4806/12484) 39% (3743/9605) 36.9% (1063/2879) 0.025
 other school graduations 0.4% (55/12484) 0.4% (40/9605) 0.5% (15/2879) 0.280
 no graduation 0.3% (39/12484) 0.3% (28/9605) 0.4% (11/2879) 0.276
Professional education, % (N)
 apprenticeship/vocational school 46.1% (5759/12484) 45.3% (4351/9605) 48.9% (1408/2879) <  0.0001
 master/technical school 15.4% (1926/12484) 15.6% (1499/9605) 14.8% (427/2879) 0.163
 university/university of applied sciences 29.9% (3730/12484) 31% (2981/9605) 26% (749/2879) <  0.0001
 other professional graduations 2.7% (336/12484) 2.7% (258/9605) 2.7% (78/2879) 0.499
 without professional graduation 5.9% (733/12484) 5.4% (516/9605) 7.5% (217/2879) <  0.0001
Employment status, % (N)
 no 37.1% (4635/12482) 37.7% (3622/9603) 35.2% (1013/2879) 0.007
 yes, full-time employed 45.8% (5720/12482) 46% (4413/9603) 45.4% (1307/2879) 0.307
 yes, part-time employed 13.4% (1670/12482) 13% (1245/9603) 14.8% (425/2879) 0.007
 yes, marginally employed 3.7% (457/12482) 3.4% (323/9603) 4.7% (134/2879) 0.001
SES1 (3–21), mean ± SD 13.2 ± 4.4 (12484) 13.4 ± 4.4 (9605) 12.5 ± 4.2 (2879) < 0.0001*
Education sum score (1–7), mean ± SD 3.9 ± 2.2 (12484) 3.9 ± 2.2 (9605) 3.8 ± 2.1 (2879) < 0.0001*
Occupation sum score (1–7), mean ± SD 4.8 ± 1.6 (12484) 4.9 ± 1.6 (9605) 4.6 ± 1.5 (2879) < 0.0001
Household net-income (1–7), mean ± SD 4.5 ± 1.7 (12484) 4.6 ± 1.7 (9605) 4.1 ± 1.8 (2879) < 0.0001
PHQ-2 ≥ 2 at T0, % (N) 23.1% (2879/12484) 23.1% (2879/12484)
PHQ-2 ≥ 2 at T1, % (N) 23.2% (2898/12484) 15.1% (1455/9605) 50.1% (1443/2879) < 0.0001
PHQ-2 score at T0, mean ± SD 0.9 ± 1.0 (12484) 0.4 ± 0.5 (9605) 1.7 ± 1.6 (2879) < 0.0001*
PHQ-2 score at T1, mean ± SD 0.8 ± 1.2 (12484) 0.6 ± 0.9 (9605) 1.7 ± 1.6 (2879) < 0.0001*
MH2 of depressive disorder, yes, % (N) 11.5% (1433/12472) 7.1% (683/9599) 26.1% (750/2873) < 0.0001
GAD-2 score, mean ± SD 0.9 ± 1.1 (12436) 0.6 ± 0.8 (9569) 1.8 ± 1.4 (2867) < 0.0001*
MH2 of anxiety disorder, yes, % (N) 7.1% (880/12475) 4.7% (447/9601) 15% (433/2874) < 0.0001
CVD3, % (N) 6.3% (776/12313) 6.2 (589/9478) 6.6% (187/2835) 0.455
Cancer, % (N) 8.7% (1082/12476) 8.5% (817/9599) 9.2% (265/2877) 0.242
Diabetes, % (N) 8.5% (1062/12484) 8.4% (805/9605) 8.9% (257/2622) 0.361
COPD4, % (N) 4.7% (583/12484) 4.2% (408/9605) 6.1% (175/2879) < 0.0001
Asthma, % (N) 2.7% (334/12484) 2.5% (240/9605) 3.3% (94/2879) 0.028
Major medical diseases5, % (N) 23.5% (2907/12363 22.8% (2186/9513) 25% (721/2850) 0.011
  1. Data are described as mean ± standard deviation (n) or percentage with proportional numbers in brackets (n/n)
  2. 1SES Socioeconomic status
  3. 2MH Medical history
  4. 3CVD Cardiovascular diseases, e.g. coronary heart diseases, stroke or medicated heart failure
  5. 4COPD Chronic obstructive lung disease
  6. 5Major medical diseases = any of the following diseases: CVD Cancer, diabetes, COPD Asthma
  7. *boldface indicates p < 0.5 for odds ratios