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Table 1 Characteristics of the total study population (n = 2157)

From: Factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding and consumption of non-recommended foods among Dutch infants: the BeeBOFT study

Variable Missing (N) Age at introduction of complementary feeding p value
> 4 months
N (%)
< 4 months
N (%)
Total   1695(78.58) 462 (21.42)  
Demographic characteristics
 Maternal age at child birth, years, mean (SD) 31 31.36(4.1) 29.7(4.3) < 0.001
 Maternal educational level 13    < 0.001
  Low   147(8.7) 96(21.1)  
  Middle   576(34.1) 195(42.8)  
  High   967(57.2) 165(36.2)  
 Maternal ethnic background, native 4 1533(90.3) 407(88.1) 0.15
 Maternal employment status, employed 4 1449(85.6) 377(81.6) 0.04
 Family structure, single parent 23 1659(98.7) 440(96.7) < 0.01
 Infant gender, boy 1 843(49.7) 263(57.1) < 0.01
 Parity, primipara 0 747(44.0) 251(54.3) < 0.001
Biological factors
 Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI 5 24.0(4.3) 25.0(4.9) 0.02
 Infant gestational age at birth, weeks, mean (SD) 0 39.8(1.0) 39.7(1.0) 0.10
 Infant weight at birth, Z-score, mean (SD) 10 0.4(1.0) 0.3(1.0) 0.03
 Infant postnatal weight gain, Z-score, mean (SD) 677 −0.7(0.8) −0.5(0.9) < 0.001
Behavioral factors
 Duration of any breastfeeding 6    < 0.001
  No breastfeeding   360(21.3) 169(36.8)  
  Breastfeeding for 0.5–4 months   547(19.4) 207(26.8)  
  Breastfeeding for 4 months or longer   789(46.6) 83(18.1)  
Psychosocial factors
 Maternal depressive symptom, yesa 119 1445(89.7) 371(86.5) 0.054
Parental perceptions on infant characteristics, (agree/strongly agree)
 “My baby drinks greedily” 23 477(28.4) 135(29.6) 0.07
 “My child always wants to eat when he/she sees someone eating” 23 559(33.3) 212(46.6) < 0.001
 “My child does not like plain water” 45 293(17.6) 114(25.2) < 0.001
 “My child cried a lot in the first 3 months” 16 300(17.8) 99(21.6) 0.06
Parental beliefs about feeding, (agree/strongly agree)
 “Fruit and vegetables can be given to the baby freely earlier than 4 months” 20 39(2.3) 70(15.4) < 0.001
Parental beliefs about infant weight, (agree/strongly agree)
 “I don’t like my child to be fat” 20 1206(71.7) 296(64.9) < 0.01
 “I don’t like my child to be thin” 15 924(54.8) 234(51.1) 0.18
Infant temperament
 Soothability, mean (SD) 31 4.8(1.2) 4.7(1.3) 0.06
 Distress to limitation, mean (SD) 33 2.8(0.9) 2.7(0.9) 0.27
 Distress to novel food, mean (SD) 36 2.3(1.4) 2.2(1.3) 0.02
Social care factors
 Day-care attendance, yes 25 1250(74.4) 297(65.4) < 0.001
 “BBOFT+” interventionb 0 509(30.0) 127(27.5) 0.27
  1. aMaternal depressive symptom was defined as a score of 10 or greater on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. This variable was defined as missing if the questionnaire had been filled in by the father or other care givers (n = 107)
  2. bThe “BBOFT+ Intervention” group comprised the group of parents allocated to the BBOFT+ study arm; “no intervention” comprised the groups of parents allocated to the control group or to the “E-health” intervention group