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Table 4 Summary of evidence on physical activity (PA) correlates in Thai older adults (60 years old and above)

From: Correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the Thai population: a systematic review

Correlates Relationship with PA Summary Code
Negative/Inverse (-) Positive (+) Non-significant (?)
Individual Level
Demographic factors
– Age 104, 139, 164, 191, 192 37, 58, 59, 124, 140 58, 66, 116, 117, 142, 155, 162, 174, 177, 185 ??
– Sex (+ denotes males are more active, - denotes females are more active) 66, 100, 155 31, 42, 100, 116, 117, 142, 152, 162, 174, 184, 185 39, 58, 59, 68, 124, 139, 140, 164, 176, 191 ??
– Municipality (+ denotes more PA in an urban place of residence, - denotes more PA in a rural place of residence) 58 192 58 ?
– Marital status (+ denotes singles are more active)   66, 155 58, 59, 117, 139, 164, 174, 185, 191 ??
– Education level 58, 116, 117 40, 59, 139, 142, 155, 162, 164, 185, 192 39, 58, 66, 174, 191 ??
– Household income 66, 117 39, 40, 58, 139, 185, 192 58, 59, 142, 162 ??
– Occupation (+ denotes unemployed are more active)   155 58, 59, 117 ?
– Region (+ denotes Central including Bangkok residents are more active, - denotes residents of other provinces are more active) 134 155   ?
– Daily duties (+ denotes individuals performing daily duties regularly are more active, - denotes individuals performing daily duties occasionally are more active) 162    -
– Senior-citizen club membership (+ denotes yes, - denotes no)   139, 191 66 +
– Duration of health club membership    117 ?
– Ever attended a workshop on exercise (+ denotes yes, - denotes no)   124   +
Biological factors     
– Body mass index (BMI)    58, 66 ?
– Overweight    147 (M, F) ?
– Obesity 47 (M, F)    -
– Bone mineral density (BMD) 42 (F) 99, 134, 138 42 (M) +
– Skeletal muscle mass (%)    143 ?
– Dietary calcium intake   138   +
– Adequate serum vitamin D levels    143 ?
– Sunlight exposure   138   +
– Total cholesterol (TCH) level    60 (M, F) ?
– Triglycerides (TG) level 60 (M, F)    -
– HDL-cholesterol level   60 (M, F)   +
– Total cholesterol: HDL-C ratio 60 (M, F)    -
– High TCH    60 (M, F) ?
– High TG 60 (M, F)    -
– Low HDL-C    60 (M, F) ?
– High TCH: HDL-C ratio    60 (M, F) ?
– Resting heart rate 166 (M, F)    -
– Mean heart rate    166 (M, F) ?
– Predicted maximum heart rate (%)    166 (M, F) ?
– Systolic blood pressure 161   166 (M, F) ?
– Diastolic blood pressure 161   166 (M, F) ?
– VO2max   166 (M, F)   +
– FEV1 (Abnormal lung function)    166 (M, F) ?
– FVC (Pulmonary function test)    166 (M, F) ?
– FEV1/FVC (%)    166 (M, F) ?
– Hematocrit level 73    -
– Hypercholesterolemia    103 (M, F) ?
Physical health
– History of sickness/Underlying illness/Co-morbid diseases (+ denotes yes, - denotes no) 66   59, 162 ?
– Having health symptoms (i.e. fatigue, weight loss, sleep disorders) (+ denotes yes, - denotes no) 162    -
– Osteoporosis 138    -
– Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) 88    -
General health
– Self-rated general health   98, 139, 164, 169, 175 192, 185 ++
– Health-related quality of life   41, 48, 56   +
– General oral-health status (e.g. number of teeth, and oral malodour)    152 ?
– Periodontal disease 152    -
– Saliva flow rate   152   +
Psychological factors
– Mental health   32, 43, 98, 175 43 ++
– Attitudes towards PA/exercise   79, 117, 188, 191   ++
– Self-efficacy   79, 98, 104, 139, 140, 162, 185 39, 53, 174 ++
– Perceived benefits of PA/exercise   40, 79, 139, 174, 177, 192 39, 59 ++
– Perceived barriers for PA/exercise 39, 40, 79, 139, 176   53, 174 --
– Outcome expectancies   79, 104, 140, 162   ++
– Intention to PA/exercise   79, 140   +
– Perceived control   79   +
– Subjective norms   79   +
– Enjoyment of PA/exercise    59 +
– Perceived health risks of exercise 140    -
– Life satisfaction   120   +
– Career satisfaction   182   +
– Motivation for PA/exercise    174 ?
– Score on memory and intelligence tests    32 ?
– Commitment to an exercise plan   53   +
Physical skills, abilities, and fitness
– Ability to do daily activities   192   +
– Physical and functional fitness (e.g. walking distance, leg strength)   43, 34, 93, 166 (M, F)   ++
– Score on Timed Up and Go test 93    -
Health behavioural and lifestyle factors
– Smoking 66   78 (M, F), 153 ?
– Alcohol consumption 66 177 (M) 177 (F) ?
– Sedentary time 58    -
– Spare time   59   +
– Oral-health behaviours (i.e. tooth brushing, and regular dental visits)   152   +
Knowledge
– Knowledge about PA/exercise   59, 117, 188, 191 162 ++
Social environment
Social and cultural factors
– Social support   53, 192 98, 162, 174 ?
– General interpersonal influences   139 117 ?
– Parent/family influences   191, 192 39, 104 ?
– Friendship/companionship influences   191, 192 104 +
– Hospital staff support   191   +
– Information support (e.g. from media)   164   +
– Religion (+ denotes Buddhists are more active, - denotes Muslims are more active)   184, 192   +
Physical environment
Environmental factors
– Supportive physical environment (e.g. facilities, supplies)   39, 192 117 +
– Supportive neighbourhood environment   39, 40, 104 98 +
– A sense of community   98   +
– Urban environment 100 (M, F)    -
– Residential community (+ denotes rural community is more active, - denotes residential home is more active)   68   +
– Distance to work    58 ?
– Distance to the nearest shopping place 58    -
– Distance to the nearest recreation facility    58 ?
– Distance to the nearest religious establishment    58 ?
  1. (+) Mostly positive associations, (-) Mostly negative associations, (?) Mostly non-significant, indeterminate, or inconsistent associations, (M) Male, (F) Female