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Table 3 Summary of evidence on physical activity (PA) correlates in Thai adults (18 – 59 years old)

From: Correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the Thai population: a systematic review

Correlates Relationship with PA Summary Code
Negative/Inverse (-) Positive (+) Non-significant (?)
Individual Level
Demographic factor
– Age   37, 58, 59, 107, 124, 140, 172 58, 72, 81, 112, 116, 117, 155, 176, 190, 197 ??
– Sex (+ denotes males are more active, - denotes females are more active) 50, 100, 155, 196 31, 83, 87, 100, 107, 113, 116, 117, 131, 132, 136, 150, 159, 165, 180, 181, 184, 186, 190, 193, 195 36, 44, 58, 59, 72, 92, 95, 112, 124, 140, 172, 176, 194, 197 ??
– Municipality (+ denotes more PA in an urban place of residence, - denotes more PA in a rural place of residence) 58   58 ?
– Marital status (+ denotes singles are more active)   155 58, 59, 72, 81, 101, 112, 117, 172, 190, 197 ??
– Education level 58, 116, 117, 181 59, 155, 190 58, 72, 101, 112, 172, 197 ??
– University year 165 137, 186 36, 95, 179, 193, 195 ??
– Faculty*   44, 87, 165, 194, 195, 196 92, 95, 159, 179, 186 ??
– Household income 117 58, 92 58, 59, 72, 101, 172, 179, 181, 190, 195, 197 ??
– Occupation (+ denotes unemployed are more active)   155, 190 58, 59, 101, 117 ??
– Region (+ denotes Central including Bangkok residents are more active, - denotes residents of other provinces are more active) 134 155 172 ?
– Early-life (0-5) urban exposure    35 ?
– Number of family members    101 ?
– Student residency (+ denotes residents of university dorms are more active, - denotes students living in other accommodation types are more active)   195 95, 181 ?
– Hometown (urban/rural)    92 ?
– Campus/working location*   163, 197 44, 112, 159, 194 ??
– Having a dependant    81 ?
– Years of working experience   172   +
– Working position    112, 172, 197 ?
– Working type    197 ?
– Duration of health club membership    117 ?
– Having a ‘dream job’   92   +
– Extra job (+ denotes yes, - denotes no)    112 ?
– Ever attended a workshop on exercise (+ denotes yes, - denotes no)   124   +
Biological factors     
– Body mass index (BMI) 179 180 58, 109, 181, 197 ??
– Underweight   131 (F), 150 131 (M) +
– Overweight 150   65 (M, F), 114, 131 (M, F), 146 (M, F) ??
– Obesity 46 (M, F), 47 (M, F), 86, 114, 150   65 (M, F), 128, 131 (M, F) ??
– Waist circumference    197 ?
– Body fat (%)    109 ?
– Bone mineral density (BMD)   134, 138, 160 (M, F) 74, 90, 145 ?
– Calcaneal stiffness index   160 (M, F) 160 (M, F) ?
– Skeletal muscle mass percent    143 ?
– Dietary calcium intake   138   +
– Adequate serum vitamin D levels    143 ?
– Sunlight exposure   138   +
– Total cholesterol (TCH) level    60 (M, F), 107 ?
– Triglycerides (TG) level 60 (M, F), 107    -
– HDL-cholesterol level   60 (M, F), 107   +
– LDL-cholesterol level    107 ?
– Total cholesterol: HDL-C ratio 60 (M, F)    -
– High TCH    60 (M, F) ?
– High TG 60 (M, F)    -
– Low HDL-C    60 (M, F) ?
– High TCH: HDL-C ratio    60 (M, F) ?
– Resting heart rate 107, 166 (M, F)    -
– Mean heart rate    166 (M, F) ?
– Predicted maximum heart rate (%)    166 (M, F) ?
– Systolic blood pressure    107, 166 (M, F) ?
– Diastolic blood pressure    107, 166 (M, F) ?
– Fasting plasma glucose    107 ?
– VO2max   166 (M, F)   +
– FEV1 (Abnormal lung function)    166 (M, F) ?
– FVC (Pulmonary function test)    166 (M, F) ?
– FEV1/FVC (%)    166 (M, F) ?
– Hematocrit level 73    -
– Hypercholesterolemia    103 (M, F) ?
Physical health
– History of sickness/Underlying illness/Co-morbid diseases (+ denotes yes, - denotes no)    59, 101, 112, 181, 195, 197 ??
– Hypertension    69 ?
– Metabolic syndrome    136 (M, F) ?
– Osteoporosis   138   +
– Musculoskeletal symptoms 63, 144   85, 89, 133 ?
– Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (RASM)   105 (F) 105 (M) ?
– Dysmenorrhea    57 (F) ?
– Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) 88    -
General health
– Self-rated general health   87, 94, 175, 194, 197 159 ++
Psychological factors
– Mental health   32, 94, 175, 190   ++
– Attitudes towards PA/exercise   49, 50 (M, F), 117, 154, 165, 186, 188, 190, 197 44, 70, 82, 112 ++
– Overall health belief   170   +
– Self-efficacy   81, 83, 87, 140, 159, 172, 187, 194 72, 101, 137 ++
– Perceived benefits of PA/exercise   50 (M, F), 83, 87, 101, 137, 172, 175, 194 59, 72, 159, 170, 187 ++
– Perceived barriers for PA/exercise 72, 83, 87, 159, 170, 172, 176, 194   62, 101, 187 --
– Outcome expectancies   81, 140   +
– Intention to PA/exercise   140, 179   +
– Enjoyment of PA/exercise   59   +
– Perceived exercise-related effect 140   72, 170 ?
– Career satisfaction   182   +
– Motivation for PA/exercise   83 76, 195 ?
– External regulation    76 ?
– Extrinsic motivation 76    -
– Intrinsic motivation   76   +
– Commitment to PA/exercise    151 ?
– Stress level 179    -
– Sense of coherence    108 ?
– Identity achievement    108 ?
– Score on memory and intelligence tests    32 ?
Physical skills, abilities, and fitness
– Physical and functional fitness (e.g. walking distance, leg strength)   94, 166 (M, F)   +
Health behavioural and lifestyle factors
– Smoking    78 (M, F), 153 ?
– Alcohol consumption   177 (M) 177 (F) ?
– Healthy dietary habits   119   +
– Past PA/exercise experience   72   +
– Being a university athlete    137, 165 ?
– Availability and/or engagement in enjoyable sports   115, 137   +
– Loving watching sports    115 ?
– Having a favourite athlete    115 ?
– Sedentary time 58   127 ?
– Spare time   49, 59, 82, 115   ++
– Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake    71 ?
Knowledge
– Knowledge about PA/exercise 154 44, 50 (M, F), 59, 101, 117, 188, 194 49, 82, 87, 112, 159, 165, 195, 197 ??
Academic/school performance
– Grade point average    179 ?
Social environment
Social and cultural factors
– Social support   50 (M, F), 87, 154, 159, 165, 180, 194, 197 101 ++
– Cultural support   180   +
– General interpersonal influences 151 49, 82, 154, 187, 197 117 ++
– Parent/family influences   81, 83, 137, 172 72, 117 ++
– Family members’ involvement in PA/exercise   137   +
– Friendship/companionship influences   81   +
– Friends’ involvement in PA/exercise    115 ?
– Information support (e.g. from media)   49, 154, 159, 194, 197 82 ++
– Religion (+ denotes Buddhists are more active, - denotes Muslims are more active)   184 95 ?
Physical environment
Environmental factors
– Environmental support (e.g. situational influences)   137 72, 151, 195 ?
– Supportive physical environment (e.g. facilities, supplies)   81, 82, 87, 154 49, 101, 197 ?
– Supportive neighbourhood environment    81 ?
– Urban environment 35, 100 (M, F)    -
– Distance to work    58 ?
– Distance to the nearest shopping place 58    -
– Distance to the nearest recreation facility    58 ?
– Distance to the nearest religious establishment    58 ?
– Convenience of travel    115 ?
– Month of the year (+ denotes higher PA in later months of a calendar year)   109   +
Policy
Policy attribute
– Supportive education policies   82, 154, 165 49 +
– Supportive workplace policies    197 ?
  1. (+) Mostly positive associations, (-) Mostly negative associations, (?) Mostly non-significant, indeterminate, or inconsistent associations, (M) Male, (F) Female, Faculty* and Campus/working location* variables - due to a number of categories of these variables, we used only + (to denote any significant association of specific faculties or campuses/working locations) and ? (to denote a non-significant association) codes.