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Table 2 Summary of evidence on physical activity (PA) correlates in Thai children and adolescents (6 – 17 years old)

From: Correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the Thai population: a systematic review

Correlates Relationship with PA Summary Code
Negative/Inverse (-) Positive (+) Non-significant (?)
Individual Level
Demographic factors
– Age 97, 135 (M, F), 183   158 (M, F) --
– Sex (+ denotes males are more active, - denotes females are more active)   51, 55, 97, 111, 118, 122, 126, 135, 158, 167, 178, 183 169, 189 ++
– Household income 96, 178    -
– School type (+ denotes more PA in mixed-gender schools, - denotes more PA in single-gender schools)   55   +
– School grade 80   51, 118, 167, 189 ??
– Parents’ occupation    189 ?
– Municipality (+ denotes more PA in an urban place of residence, - denotes more PA in a rural place of residence)   169 135 (M, F), 64 ?
– Household location within Bangkok    178 ?
Biological factors
– Body weight    135 (M, F) ?
– Body mass index (BMI) 97, 178   33, 51, 135 (M, F), 158 ??
– Parents’ BMI    178 ?
– Underweight    110 ?
– Overweight 110, 157 111 (F) 52, 111 (M), 125 (F) ?
– Obesity 110, 130 (M), 157   125 (F), 130 (F), 169 ?
– Body fat (%)   135 (M) 135 (F) ?
– Height 135 (M, F)   77 (M, F) ?
– Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level    158 ?
– Systolic blood pressure    158 ?
– Diastolic blood pressure    158 ?
– Dietary fat intake    158 ?
Physical health     
– Asthma 157    -
– Hypertension 157    -
General health     
– Self-rated general health   121 (M, F)   +
– Child’s health status as perceived by parents    45 ?
Psychological factors
– Self-efficacy   45, 51, 80, 123 167 ++
– Perceived benefits of PA/exercise   51, 80 38 (M, F), 167 ?
– Perceived barriers for PA/exercise 38 (F), 51, 80, 123   38 (M), 167 --
– Attitudes towards PA/exercise   178 167 ?
– Self-esteem    167 ?
– Cues to action    38 (M, F) ?
– Being bullied 129 (M)   129 (F) ?
– Expected outcomes of PA/exercise    167 ?
– Body dissatisfaction 55    -
– Enjoyment of PA/exercise   80, 183 178 +
– Resilience   118   +
Physical skills, abilities, and fitness
– Perceived physical competence   183   +
Health behavioural and lifestyle factors
– Past PA/exercise experience   51, 80 167 +
– TV viewing 178    -
Knowledge     
– Knowledge about PA/exercise   167   +
– Parents’ knowledge about school-aged children’s PA    45 ?
Academic/school performance
– Grade point average 157    -
Social environment
Social and cultural factors
– Social support   123, 178 167 +
– Parent/family influences   80, 183 178 +
– Friendship/companionship influences   80, 122 (M, F), 183   ++
– Involvement with friends   122 (M, F)   +
– Ease in making friends   122 (M, F)   +
– Teacher influences   80   +
– General interpersonal influences   51   +
– Information support (e.g. social media)   167   +
Physical environment
Environmental factors
– Environmental support (e.g. situational influences)   51, 80, 178   +
– Supportive physical environment (e.g. facilities, supplies)   178 167 ?
– Supportive neighbourhood environment   178   +
  1. (+) Mostly positive associations, (-) Mostly negative associations, (?) Mostly non-significant, indeterminate, or inconsistent associations, (M) Male, (F) Female