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Table 4 Self-reported hand cleaning and hand drying practice by gender (n = 815)

From: Epidemiological investigation on hand hygiene knowledge and behaviour: a cross-sectional study on gender disparity

   Total
(n = 815)
Male
(n = 245)
Female
(n = 570)
Test statistics & p-value
n (%)※ n (%)※ n (%)※  
  Hand cleaning
1. Before handling food or cooking
 No 14 (1.7) 7 (2.9%) 7 (1.2) 0.000***
 Water only 357 (44.1) 145(59.9%) 212 (37.3)
 Water and soap 433 (53.5) 88 (36.4) 345 (60.7)
 ABHR 4 (0.5) 1 (0.4) 3 (0.5)
 Wet wipes 2 (0.2) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.2)
 Not applicable 5 3 2
2. After handling food or cooking
 No 16 (2.0) 8 (3.3) 8 (1.4) 0.000***
 Water only 242 (30.0) 104 (43.5) 138 (24.3)
 Water and soap 547 (67.9) 126 (52.7) 421 (74.3)
 ABHR 1 (0.1) 1 (0.4) 0 (0.0)
 Not applicable 9 6 3
3. Before eating
 No 78 (9.6) 30 (12.2) 48 (8.4) 0.000***
 Water only 330 (40.5) 127 (51.8) 203 (35.6)
 Water and soap 380 (46.6) 83 (33.9) 297 (52.1)
 ABHR 10 (1.2) 2 (0.8) 8 (1.4)
 Wet wipes 17 (2.1) 3 (1.2) 14 (2.5)
4. After urination
 No 2 (0.2) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.2) 0.000***
 Water only 431 (52.9) 171 (69.8) 260 (45.6)
 Water and soap 382 (46.9) 73 (29.8) 309 (54.2)
5. After defaecation
 No 1 (0.1) 1 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 0.001***
 Water only 129 (15.8) 54 (22.0) 75 (13.2)
 Water and soap 683 (83.8) 189 (77.1) 494 (86.7)
 ABHR 2 (0.2) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.2)
6. After feeding a child
 No 30 (5.2) 12 (8.0) 18 (4.2) 0.009**
 Water only 253 (43.5) 72 (48.0) 181 (41.9)
 Water and soap 288 (49.5) 60 (40.0) 228 (52.8)
 ABHR 4 (0.7) 2 (1.3) 2 (0.5)
 Wet wipes 7 (1.2) 4 (2.7) 3 (0.7)
 Not applicable 233 95 138
7. After caring for a sick person
 No 6 (0.9) 3 (1.5) 3 (0.6) 0.000***
 Water only 70 (10.0) 44 (21.8) 70 (10.0)
 Water and soap 497 (10.9) 120 (59.4) 497 (70.9)
 ABHR 127 (18.1) 35 (17.3) 127 (18.1)
 Wet wipes 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)
 Not applicable 114 43 71
8. After daily work
 No 90 (11.5) 32 (13.9) 58 (10.5) 0.219
 Water only 248 (31.8) 98 (42.6) 150 (27.2)
 Water and soap 410 (52.5) 96 (41.7) 314 (57.0)
 ABHR 27 (3.5) 3 (1.3) 24 (4.4)
 Wet wipes 6 (0.8) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.9)
 Not applicable 34 15 19
9. When your hands are visibly dirty
 No 3 (0.4) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.2) 0.000***
 Water only 22 (2.7) 10 (4.1) 12 (2.1)
 Water and soap 79 (95.6) 231 (94.3) 548 (96.1)
 ABHR 6 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 6 (1.1)
 Wet wipes 5 (0.6) 2 (0.8) 3 (0.5)
10. After sneezing or coughing
 No 143 (17.5) 58 (23.7) 85 (14.9) 0.000***
 Water only 215 (26.4) 90 (36.7) 125 (21.9)
 Water and soap 330 (40.5) 79 (32.2) 251 (44.0)
 ABHR 58 (7.1) 7 (2.9) 51 (8.9)
 Wet wipes 69 (8.5) 11 (4.5) 58 (10.2)
11. After touching livestock(s)
 No 4 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.1) 0.000***
 Water only 39 (7.6) 19 (12.8) 20 (5.5)
 Water and soap 421 (82.2) 116 (78.4) 305 (83.8)
 ABHR 43 (8.4) 10 (6.8) 33 (9.1)
 Wet wipes 5 (1.0) 3 (2.0) 2 (0.5)
 Not applicable 303 97 206
12. After touching animal(s) waste
 No 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.513
 Water only 15 (2.7) 6 (3.7) 9 (2.3)
 Water and soap 498 (89.1) 141 (87.0) 357 (89.9)
 ABHR 44 (7.9) 15 (9.3) 29 (7.3)
 Wet wipes 2 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.5)
 Not applicable 256 83 173
13. After disposal of garbage bag
 No 24 (2.9) 10 (4.1) 14 (2.5) 0.000***
 Water only 204 (25.0) 100 (40.8) 104 (18.2)
 Water and soap 570 (69.9) 131 (53.5) 439 (77.0)
 ABHR 15 (1.8) 4 (1.6) 11 (1.9)
 Wet wipes 2 (0..2) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.4)
14. After gardening
 No 6 (1.0) 2 (1.3) 4 (0.9) 0.000***
 Water only 165 (28.2) 69 (43.1) 96 (22.5)
 Water and soap 411 (70.1) 89 (55.6) 322 (75.6)
 ABHR 4 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 4 (0.9)
 Not applicable 229 85 144
15. Would you perform hand hygiene more often during infectious disease outbreaks?
 No 196 (24.0) 61 (24.9) 135 (23.7) 0.721
 Yes 619 (76.0) 184 (75.1) 435 (76.3)
16. How much time do you usually lather your hands with soap before rinsing?
 Less than 5 s 133 (16.3) 54 (22.0) 79 (13.9) 0.003**
 5–10 s 476 (58.4) 142 (58.0) 334 (58.6)
 11–19 s 102 (12.5) 30 (12.2) 72 (12.6)
 20 s or more 104 (12.8) 19 (7.8) 85 (14.9)
17. Use a paper towel that you have used to dry your hands to turn off the faucet
 Always 165(20.2) 41 (16.7) 124 (21.8) 0.003**
 Sometimes 289 (35.5) 73 (29.8) 216 (37.9)
 Never 361 (44.3) 131 (53.5) 230 (40.4)
17. Use a new paper towel to turn off the faucet
 Always 46 (5.6) 21 (8.6) 25 (4.4) 0.039*
 Sometimes 146 (18.0) 38 (15.5) 108 (18.9)
 Never 623 (76.4) 186 (75.9) 437 (76.7)
18. Use water to splash the faucet before turning it off
 Always 175 (21.5) 35 (14.3) 140 (24.6) 0.000***
 Sometimes 346 (42.5) 91 (37.1) 255 (44.7)
 Never 294 (36.0) 119 (48.6) 175 (30.7)
19. Ignore handwashing if in a hurry
 Always/Sometimes 86 (10.6) 40 (16.3) 46 (8.1) 0.001**
 Never 729 (89.4) 205 (83.7) 524 (91.9)
20. Ignore handwashing when nobody in the washroom
 Always/Sometimes 49 (6.0) 22 (9.0) 27 (4.7) 0.024*
 Never 766 (94.0) 233 (91.0) 543 (95.3)
21. Ignore handwashing if I have only urinated
 Always/Sometimes 96 (11.8) 49 (20.0) 47 (8.2) 0.000***
 Never 719 (88.2) 196 (80.0) 523 (91.8)
Hand drying
22. Rub hands on own clothing
 Always 52 (6.4) 25 (10.2) 27 (4.7) 0.005**
 Sometimes 277 (34.0) 89 (36.3) 188 (33.0)
 Never 486 (59.6) 131 (53.5) 355 (62.3)
23. Air evaporation
 Always 146 (17.9) 64 (26.1) 82 (14.4) 0.000***
 Sometimes 420 (51.5) 101 (41.2) 319 (56.0)
 Never 249 (30.6) 80 (32.7) 169 (29.6)
24. Use personal towel or handkerchief
 Always 92 (11.3) 28 (11.4%) 64(11.2%) 0.242
 Sometimes 218 (26.7) 56 (22.9%) 162 (28.4%)
 Never 505 (62.0) 161 (65.7%) 344 (60.4%)
25. Use own disposable tissue
 Always 320 (39.3%) 82 (33.5) 238 (41.8) 0.009**
 Sometimes 360 (44.2%) 109 (44.5) 251 (44.0)
 Never 135 (16.6%) 54 (22.0) 81 (14.2)
26. Paper towels supplied by the washroom
 Always 592 (72.6) 172 (70.2) 420 (73.7) 0.590
 Sometimes 194 (23.8) 64 (26.1) 130 (22.8)
 Never 29 (3.6) 9 (3.7) 20 (3.5)
27. Warm hand dryer
 Always 165 (20.2) 52 (21.2) 113 (19.8) 0.691
 Sometimes 517 (63.4) 157 (64.1) 360 (63.2)
 Never 133 (16.3) 36 (14.7) 97 (17.0)
28. Jet hand dryer
 Always 152 (18.7) 48 (19.6) 104 (18.2) 0.544
 Sometimes 487 (59.8) 150 (61.2) 337 (59.1)
 Never 176 (21.6) 47 (19.2) 129 (22.6)
29. Cloth towel rolls
 Always 17 (2.1) 5 (2.0) 12 (2.1) 0.282
 Sometimes 106 (13.0) 39 (15.9) 67 (11.8)
Never 692 (84.9) 201 (82.0) 491 (86.1)
30. How many paper towels do you commonly used
 One 365 (45.4) 106 (44.0) 259 (46.0) 0.324
 Two 370 (46.0) 115 (47.7) 255 (45.3)
 Three 57 (7.1) 14 (5.8) 43 (7.6)
 Four or more 12 (1.5) 6 (2.5) 6 (1.1)
 Not applicable 11 4 7
31. If warm hand dryer is used, how do you usually position your hands?
 Rubbing the hands during drying 378 (51.1) 126 (56.8) 252 (48.6) 0.045*
 Hold the hands stationary during drying 362 (48.9) 96 (43.2) 266 (51.4)
 Not applicable 75 23 52
32. Average time for using warm hand dryer (in seconds)
 Less than 5 s 56 (7.6) 22 (10.0) 34 (6.6) 0.188
 5–10 s 391 (53.3) 104 (47.0) 287 (56.0)
 11–20 s 219 (29.9) 72 (32.6) 147 (28.7)
 21–30 s 46 (6.3) 14 (6.3) 32 (6.3)
 31–40 s 14 (1.9) 6 (2.7) 8 (1.6)
 41 s or more 7 (1.0) 3 (1.4) 4 (0.8)
 Not applicable 82 24 58
33. Average time for using jet hand dryer (in seconds)
 Less than 5 s 75 (11.1) 24 (11.4) 51 (11.0) 0.692
 5–10 s 357 (52.9) 105 (49.8) 252 (54.4)
 11–20 s 188 (27.9) 65 (30.8) 123 (26.5)
 21–30 s 32 (4.7) 10 (4.7) 22 (4.7)
 31–40 s 17 (2.5) 4 (1.9) 13 (2.8)
 41 s or more 6 (0.9) 3 (1.4) 3 (0.6)
 Not applicable 140 34 106
34. Shaking my hands to get rid of excess water before drying
 Always 427 (52.4) 147 (60.0) 280 (49.1) 0.003**
 Sometimes 289 (35.5) 80 (32.7) 209 (36.7)
 Never 99 (12.1) 18 (7.3) 81 (14.2)
  1. Abbreviation: ABHR Alcohol based hand rub
  2. Fisher’s exact test
  3. Chi-square test
  4. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05
  5. **Statistically significant at p < 0.01
  6. ***Statistically significant at p < 0.001
  7. ※ Not applicable cases were excluded from percentage calculation and the analyses