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Table 2 Knowledge level on hand hygiene by gender (n = 815)

From: Epidemiological investigation on hand hygiene knowledge and behaviour: a cross-sectional study on gender disparity

  Total
(n = 815)
Male
(n = 245)
Female
(n = 570)
Test statistics & p-value
n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Which of the following diseases can be transmitted by poor hand hygiene?
1 Diarrheal disease
 True ϕ 739 (90.7) 217 (88.6) 522 (91.6) 0.189
 False 76 (9.3) 28 (11.4) 48 (8.4)
2 URTI or ILI
 True ϕ 700 (85.9) 205 (83.7) 495 (86.8) 0.272
 False 115 (14.1) 40 (16.3) 75 (13.2)
3 Hand-foot-mouth
 True ϕ 779 (95.6) 234 (95.5) 545 (95.6) 1.000
 False 36 (4.4) 11 (4.5) 25 (4.4)
4 HIV
 True 187 (22.9) 45 (18.4) 142 (24.9) 0.046*
 False ϕ 628 (77.1) 200 (81.6) 428 (75.1)
5 Skin ulcer
 True ϕ 605 (74.2) 185 (75.5) 420 (73.3) 0.601
 False 210 (25.8) 60 (24.5) 150 (26.3)
6 Eye infections
 True ϕ 785 (96.3) 238 (97.1) 547 (96.0) 0.431
 False 30 (3.7) 7 (2.9) 23 (4.0)
7 Diabetes
 True 27 (3.3) 2 (0.8) 25 (4.4) 0.009**
 False ϕ 788 (96.7) 243 (99.2) 545 (95.6)
Are the following statements correct?
8 Always keeping your hands clean may lower our body defense mechanism
 True 644 (79.0) 203 (82.9) 441 (77.4) 0.091
 False ϕ 171 (21.0) 42 (17.1) 129 (22.6)
9 Hands should be held under water while lathering with soap
 True 528 (64.8) 119 (48.6) 168 (29.5) 0.000***
 False ϕ 287 (35.2) 126 (51.4) 402 (70.5)
10 An alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contain 40% alcohol is sufficient for hands disinfectant
 True 460 (56.4) 132 (53.9) 223 (39.1) 0.000***
 False ϕ 355 (43.6) 113 (46.1) 347 (60.9)
(Answer should be 60%)    
11 Rubbing my hands until soap forms a lather for 10 s before rinsing is enough for hand disinfection
 True 350 (42.9) 148 (60.4) 317 (55.6.0) 0.217
 False ϕ 465 (57.1) 97 (39.6) 253 (44.4)
(Answer should be 20 s)    
12 Temperature of water makes no difference in terms of the cleansing effect of hand cleaning
 True ϕ 560 (68.7) 159 (64.9) 401 (70.4) 0.138
 False 255 (31.3) 86 (35.1) 169 (29.6)
Total number of correct: (0 to 12) 9.28 ± 1.75 9.06 ± 1.73 9.38 ± 1.75 0.017▲*
mean ± standard deviation    
  1. ϕ correct answer
  2. Fisher’s exact test
  3. Chi-square test
  4. ▲ Independent t-test
  5. * Statistically significant at p < 0.05; ** Statistically significant at p < 0.01; *** Statistically significant at p < 0.001