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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents by gender

From: Epidemiological investigation on hand hygiene knowledge and behaviour: a cross-sectional study on gender disparity

  Total
(n = 815)
Male
(n = 245)
Female
(n = 570)
Test statistics & p-value
Variables n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Age group
 18–29 215 (26.4) 74 (30.2) 141 (24.7) 0.003**
 30–39 138 (16.9) 47 (19.2) 91 (16.0)
 40–49 160 (19.6) 29 (11.8) 131 (23.0)
 50–59 213 (26.1) 62 (25.3) 151 (26.5)
 60 or above 89 (10.9) 33 (13.5) 56 (9.8)
Marital status
 Single 332 (40.7) 101 (41.2) 231 (40.5) 0.021*
 Married/Partnered 426 (52.3) 136 (55.5) 290 (50.9)
 Widowed/Separated/Divorced 57 (7.0) 8 (3.3) 49 (8.6)
Educational level
 Primary or below 34 (4.2) 9 (3.7) 25 (4.4) 0.838
 Secondary 188 (23.1) 59 (24.1) 129 (22.6)
 Tertiary /College or above 593 (72.8) 177 (72.2) 416 (73.0)
Working status
 Full time 485 (59.5) 154 (62.9) 331 (58.1) 0.038*
 Part time 49 (6.0) 7 (2.9) 42 (7.4)
 Nil✡ 281 (34.5) 84 (34.3) 197 (34.5)
Comorbid illness
 No 644 (79.0) 192 (77.4) 452 (79.7) 0.513
 Yes 171 (21.0) 56 (22.6) 115 (20.3)
Self-rated health condition
 Excellent 85 (10.4) 33 (13.5) 52 (9.1) 0.212
 Good 378 (46.4) 106 (43.3) 272 (47.7)
 Average 282 (34.6) 84 (34.3) 198 (34.7)
 Fair 60 (7.4) 17 (6.9) 43 (7.5)
 Poor 10 (1.2) 5 (2.0) 5 (0.9)
Receive influenza vaccination over the past 12 months
 No 645 (79.1) 197 (80.4) 448 (78.6) 0.574
 Yes 170 (20.9) 48 (19.6) 122 (21.4)
Have a habit of wearing ring(s)
 No 635 (77.9) 201 (82.0) 434 (76.1) 0.066
 Yes 180 (22.1) 44 (18.0) 136 (23.9)
Have a habit of wearing artificial/acrylic nails 775 (95.1) 243 (99.2) 532 (93.3) 0.000***
No 40 (4.9) 2 (0.8) 38 (6.7)
Yes    
Have a habit of wearing watch
 No 355 (43.6) 93 (38.0) 262 (46.0) 0.038*
 Yes 460 (56.4) 152 (62.0) 308 (54.0)
Have a habit of wearing bracelet
 No 698 (85.6) 234 (95.5) 464 (81.4) 0.000***
 Yes 117 (14.4) 11 (4.5) 106 (18.6)
Format for completing the questionnaire
 Via ‘Survey Monkey’ 758 (93.0) 229 (93.5) 529 (92.8) 0.808
 Paper and pen (self-administered) 25 (3.1) 6 (2.4) 19 (3.3)
 Paper and pen (with assistance) 32 (3.9) 10 (4.1) 22 (3.9)
  1. Fisher’s exact test
  2. Chi-square test
  3. * Statistically significant at p < 0.05; ** Statistically significant at p < 0.01; *** Statistically significant at p < 0.001
  4. ✡retired/unemployed/housewife/student/voluntary job