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Table 2 Sample Characteristics by County Disadvantage Level, U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1992–2012 (N = 9302)

From: The association of county-level socioeconomic factors with individual tobacco and alcohol use: a longitudinal study of U.S. adults

  County Not Socioeconomically Disadvantaged County Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Test of proportions or t-test (p-value)
Sociodemographic Characteristics
Female (%) 51.2 51.9 <0.01
Education (%)
 Less than high school 14.00 18.8 <0.01
 High school 36.3 40.4 <0.01
 Some college 24.7 25.0 <0.01
 College or more 24.9 15.7 <0.01
Race (%)
 White/other 52.8 41.5 <0.01
 Black 30.9 32.4 <0.01
 Hispanic 16.3 26.1 <0.01
Married (%) 66.5 64.4 <0.01
Children in household (mean (SD)) 1.2 (1.2) 1.2 (1.3) 0.20
Annual household income (USD, mean (SD)) 59,956 (61,500) 49,119 (53,005) <0.01
Weeks unemployed in last year (mean (SD)) 2.3 (8.2) 3.0 (9.7) <0.01
Health Behaviors
Tobacco-related outcomes
 Smoker (%) 30.0 30.2 0.16
 Cigarettes per day (mean (SD)) 4.2 (8.6) 4.1 (8.7) <0.01
Alcohol-related outcomes
 Binge drinker (%) 18.4 17.8 <0.01
 Drinks per day (mean (SD)) 1.8 (2.3) 1.7 (2.5) <0.01
  1. Note: Values for sociodemographic characteristics are based on imputed data. Income was inflation-adjusted. For illustrative purposes to summarize sample characteristics, measures of county-level disadvantage (i.e., educational attainment, unemployment, and income) were each standardized with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one, these three values were summed to obtain a composite index, and this index was then split at the median