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Table 6 Univariate and multivariate analysis of Wasting (Weight-for-height index)

From: Determinants of stunting, underweight and wasting among children < 5 years of age: evidence from 2012-2013 Pakistan demographic and health survey

Variables Model 0 (n = 2863) Model 1 (n = 2840) Model 2 (n = 1810)
cOR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value
Maternal factors
 Residence
  Urban 1   1   1  
  Rural 1.13 (0.75–1.72) 0.54 0.70 (0.42–1.14) 0.15 0.85 (0.49–1.46) 0.55
 Mother’s educational level
  Higher 1   1   1  
  Secondary 1.31 (0.56–3.15) 0.54 1.25 (0.52–3.27) 0.62 2.14 (0.87–5.85) 0.09
  Primary 1.55 (0.76–3.25) 0.23 1.55 (0.69–3.44) 0.28 2.41 (0.89–7.15) 0.07
  No education 2.46 (1.15–5.28) 0.02 1.87 (0.82–4.21) 0.13 3.61 (1.33–9.82) < 0.01
 Wealth index
  Richest 1   1   1  
  Richer 0.95 (0.60–1.56) 0.83 0.82 (0.45–1.49) 0.52 0.73 (0.34–1.58) 0.43
  Middle 1.15 (0.70–1.98) 0.59 0.90 (0.44–1.84) 0.78 0.82 (0.35–1.93) 0.66
  Poorer 1.21 (0.69–2.10) 0.49 0.87 (0.39–1.92) 0.73 0.72 (0.27–1.88) 0.50
  Poorest 2.36 (1.40–3.98) < 0.01 1.69 (0.78–3.66) 0.18 1.65 (0.62–4.16) 0.32
 Mother’s employment status (n = 3064)
  Non-working 1   1   1  
  Working 0.94 (0.61–1.50) 0.81 0.66 (0.49–0.99) 0.04 0.72 (0.43–1.23) 0.24
 Mother’s age at marriage (years)
  <18 1   1   1  
  >18 0.77 (0.52–1.14) 0.19 1.03 (0.74–1.45) 0.85 0.93 (0.58–1.42) 0.69
 Parity
  1–4 1   1   1  
  5+ 1.07 (0.78–1.45) 0.68 0.96 (0.66–1.41) 0.85 1.10 (0.66–1.83) 0.67
 Mother’s access to information
  No 1   1   1  
  Yes 0.58 (0.40–0.83) < 0.01 0.78 (0.55–1.09) 0.14 0.94 (0.67–1.34) 0.76
 Consanguineous marriage
  No 1   1   1  
  Yes 1.20 (0.84–1.71) 0.31 1.01 (0.71–1.41) 0.95 0.96 (0.65–1.41) 0.83
 Mother’s height (cm)
  Normal (≥ 145 cm) 1   1   1  
  Short (< 145 cm) 1.46 (0.74–2.76) 0.24 1.30 (0.68–2.51) 0.42 1.29 (0.54–3.04) 0.55
 Mother’s BMI (kg/m2)
  Obese (≥30) 1   1   1  
  Overweight (25.0–29.9) 1.08 (0.50–2.25) 0.82 1.05 (0.48–2.28) 0.89 1.27 (0.51–3.15) 0.60
  Normal (18.5–24.9) 1.85 (0.94–3.64) 0.07 1.61 (0.83–3.11) 0.15 1.77 (0.74–4.06) 0.19
  Underweight (<18.5) 2.85 (1.43–5.68) < 0.01 2.39 (1.17–4.87) 0.01 2.79 (1.15–6.73) 0.02
Child Factors
 Sex of child
  Female 1     1  
  Male 1.15 (0.84–1.56) 0.38    1.25 (0.87–1.79) 0.21
 Age of Child (months)
  0 (<  12) 1     1  
  1 (12–23) 0.85 (0.57–1.25) 0.41    0.82 (0.52–1.30) 0.41
  2 (24–35) 0.35 (0.23–0.54) < 0.01    0.26 (0.12–0.59) < 0.01
  3 (36–47) 0.46 (0.23–0.98) 0.04    0.50 (0.18–1.41) 0.19
  4 (48–59) 0.23 (0.13–0.41) < 0.01    0.25 (0.09–0.74) 0.01
 Child size at birth
  Average 1     1  
  Small 1.35 (0.89–2.03) 0.14    1.24 (0.78–1.96) 0.36
  Large 0.66 (0.34–1.32) 0.25    0.78 (0.32–1.89) 0.59
 Antenatal clinic visits
  None 1     1  
  1–3 0.67 (0.39–1.14) 0.14    0.74 (0.46–1.16) 0.19
  3+ 0.60 (0.29–1.17) 0.13    0.92 (0.51–1.67) 0.80
 Recent diarrheal incidence
  No 1     1  
  Yes 1.43 (1.02–1.98) 0.03    1.11 (0.74–1.64) 0.61
 Breastfeeding status
  Never breastfed 1     1  
  Ever breastfed 1.14 (0.36–3.78) 0.82    1.16 (0.32–3.87) 0.85
  Still breastfeeding 2.42 (0.77–7.56) 0.12    0.82 (0.24–2.76) 0.74
  1. Model 0 = Univariate Analysis (cOR: Crude Odds Ratio)
  2. Model 1 = Adjusted with Residence, mother’s education level, wealth index, mother’s employment status, mother’s age at marriage, parity, mother’s access to information, consanguineous marriage, mother’s height and mother’s BMI (aOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio)
  3. Model 2 = Model 1 + Sex of child, age of child, child’s size at birth, antenatal clinic visits, recent diarrheal incidence, and breastfeeding status (aOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio)