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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate analysis of Underweight (Weight-for-age index)

From: Determinants of stunting, underweight and wasting among children < 5 years of age: evidence from 2012-2013 Pakistan demographic and health survey

Variables Model 0 (n = 3071) Model 1 (n = 3046) Model 2 (n = 1950)
cOR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value
Maternal factors
 Residence
  Urban 1   1   1  
  Rural 1.52 (1.17–1.97) < 0.01 0.69 (0.49–0.99) 0.04 0.80 (0.56–1.16) 0.25
 Mother’s educational level
  Higher 1   1   1  
  Secondary 1.64 (0.96–2.80) 0.06 1.43 (0.81–2.50) 0.21 1.24 (0.66–2.34) 0.51
  Primary 3.42 (1.82–6.40) < 0.01 2.59 (1.26–5.31) < 0.01 1.75 (0.84–3.72) 0.14
  No education 5.55 (3.51–8.77) < 0.01 3.18 (1.76–5.74) < 0.01 2.55 (1.26–5.17) < 0.01
 Wealth index
  Richest 1   1   1  
  Richer 1.57 (0.99–2.49) 0.05 1.18 (0.74–1.87) 0.49 0.86 (0.52–1.43) 0.57
  Middle 1.90 (1.26–2.87) < 0.01 1.14 (0.68–1.90) 0.61 0.97 (0.56–1.71) 0.93
  Poorer 2.80 (1.95–4.03) < 0.01 1.45 (0.86–2.51) 0.17 1.14 (0.63–2.05) 0.65
  Poorest 5.01 (3.47–7.22) < 0.01 2.41 (1.32–4.39) < 0.01 1.78 (0.95–3.34) 0.06
 Mother’s employment status
  Non-working 1   1   1  
  Working 1.38 (1.04–1.81) 0.02 0.87 (0.66–1.15) 0.33 0.96 (0.67–1.38) 0.85
 Mother’s age at marriage (years)
  <18 1   1   1  
  >18 0.52 (0.40–0.66) < 0.01 0.76 (0.61–0.96) 0.02 0.78 (0.57–1.04) 0.09
 Parity
  1–4 1   1   1  
  5+ 0.96 (0.76–1.20) 0.73 0.68 (0.51–0.88) < 0.01 0.73 (0.50–1.05) 0.09
 Mother’s access to information
  No 1   1   1  
  Yes 0.55 (0.41–0.71) < 0.01 0.94 (0.69–1.29) 0.73 0.94 (0.65–1.36) 0.75
 Consanguineous marriage
  No 1   1   1  
  Yes 1.74 (1.36–2.23) < 0.01 1.27 (0.99–1.63) 0.05 1.14 (0.86–1.50) 0.34
 Mother’s height (cm)
  Normal (≥145 cm) 1   1   1  
  Short (< 145 cm) 2.87 (1.69–4.89) < 0.01 2.42 (1.48–3.92) < 0.01 2.31 (1.34–3.98) < 0.01
 Mother’s BMI (kg/m2)
  Obese (≥30) 1   1   1  
  Overweight (25.0–29.9) 0.87 (0.57–1.33) 0.53 0.82 (0.51–1.31) 0.41 0.79 (0.45–1.36) 0.39
  Normal (18.5–24.9) 1.94 (1.25–3.01) < 0.01 1.44 (0.89–2.33) 0.13 1.30 (0.76–2.22) 0.33
  Underweight (<18.5) 3.40 (2.19–5.26) < 0.01 2.04 (1.19–3.51) < 0.01 1.78 (1.00–3.17) 0.04
Child Factors
 Sex of child
  Female 1     1  
  Male 1.30 (1.03–1.63) 0.02    1.24 (0.94–1.63) 0.12
 Age of Child (months)
  0 (<  12) 1     1  
  1 (12–23) 1.12 (0.77–1.64) 0.54    1.31 (0.88–1.94) 0.17
  2 (24–35) 0.98 (0.72–1.33) 0.91    1.18 (0.70–1.96) 0.52
  3 (36–47) 0.96 (0.67–1.39) 0.86    1.69 (0.89–3.21) 0.10
  4 (48–59) 0.89 (0.62–1.28) 0.54    1.65 (0.80–3.35) 0.17
 Child size at birth
  Average 1     1  
  Smaller than average 1.69 (1.28–2.21) < 0.01    1.67 (1.14–2.45) <0.01
  Larger than average 0.66 (0.41–1.06) 0.09    0.97 (0.53–1.76) 0.94
 Antenatal clinic visits
  None 1     1  
  1–3 0.81 (0.56–1.17) 0.26    1.03 (0.70–1.51) 0.78
  3+ 0.46 (0.30–0.71) < 0.01    0.91 (0.57–1.46) 0.72
 Recent diarrheal incidence
  No 1     1  
  Yes 1.27 (0.99–1.62) 0.05    1.15 (0.85–1.55) 0.29
 Breastfeeding status
  Never breastfed 1     1  
  Ever breastfed 1.51 (0.63–3.59) 0.35    1.03 (0.43–2.46) 0.94
  Still breastfeeding 2.08 (0.88–4.88) 0.09    1.71 (0.72–4.05) 0.22
  1. Model 0 = Univariate Analysis (cOR: Crude Odds Ratio)
  2. Model 1 = Adjusted with Residence, mother’s education level, wealth index, mother’s employment status, mother’s age at marriage, parity, mother’s access to information, consanguineous marriage, mother’s height and mother’s BMI (aOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio)
  3. Model 2 = Model 1 + Sex of child, Age of child, child’s size at birth, antenatal clinic visits, recent diarrheal incidence, and breastfeeding status (aOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio)