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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis of Stunting (Height-for-age index)

From: Determinants of stunting, underweight and wasting among children < 5 years of age: evidence from 2012-2013 Pakistan demographic and health survey

Variables Model 0 (n = 3071) Model 1 (n = 3046) Model 2 (n = 1950)
cOR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value
Maternal factors
 Residence
  Urban 1   1   1  
  Rural 1.57 (1.25–1.96) <  0.01 0.70 (0.53–0.92) 0.01 0.67 (0.48–0.92) 0.01
 Mother’s educational level
  Higher 1   1   1  
  Secondary 1.28 (0.80–2.00) 0.28 0.98 (0.62–1.55) 0.94 0.93 (0.56–1.56) 0.80
  Primary 3.21 (1.96–5.24) < 0.01 1.95 (1.15–3.28) 0.01 1.40 (0.79–2.50) 0.24
  No education 4.66 (3.10–7.00) < 0.01 2.11 (1.29–3.43) < 0.01 1.59 (0.88–2.88) 0.12
 Wealth index
  Richest 1   1   1  
  Richer 2.01 (1.39–2.91) < 0.01 1.70 (1.14–2.52) < 0.01 1.23 (0.76–2.00) 0.41
  Middle 2.22 (1.55–3.17) < 0.01 1.60 (1.02–2.53) 0.04 1.20 (0.66–2.17) 0.53
  Poorer 4.16 (2.93–5.88) < 0.01 2.64 (1.59–4.39) < 0.01 1.72 (0.93–3.18) 0.08
  Poorest 5.41 (3.91–7.48) < 0.01 3.22 (1.86–5.59) < 0.01 2.09 (1.05–4.14) 0.03
 Mother’s employment status
  Non-working 1   1   1  
  Working 1.45 (1.18–1.77) < 0.01 0.94 (0.77–1.16) 0.61 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 0.49
 Mother’s age at marriage (years)
  < 18 1   1   1  
  >18 0.52 (0.42–0.64) < 0.01 0.79 (0.63–0.99) 0.04 0.76 (0.59–0.99) 0.04
 Parity
  1–4 1   1   1  
  5+ 1.40 (1.10–1.78) < 0.01 0.99 (0.76–1.29) 0.97 1.06 (0.78–1.45) 0.67
 Mother’s access to information
  No 1   1   1  
  Yes 0.53 (0.39–0.71) < 0.01 0.98 (0.66–1.45) 0.94 1.02 (0.68–1.53) 0.91
 Consanguineous marriage
  No 1   1   1  
  Yes 1.64 (1.31–2.05) < 0.01 1.22 (0.96–1.54) 0.09 1.19 (0.91–1.55) 0.20
 Mother’s height (cm)
  Normal (≥145 cm) 1   1   1  
  Short (< 145 cm) 3.05 (1.68–5.55) < 0.01 2.37 (1.34–4.23) < 0.01 1.91 (1.04–3.51) 0.03
 Mother’s BMI (kg/m2)
  Obese (≥30) 1   1   1  
  Overweight (25.0–29.9) 1.17(0.80–1.70) 0.41 1.11 (0.77–1.60) 0.56 1.36 (0.87–2.12) 0.17
  Normal (18.5–24.9) 1.67 (1.13–2.47) < 0.01 1.20 (0.81–1.77) 0.35 1.34 (0.87–2.06) 0.17
  Underweight (<  18.5) 2.39(1.47–3.88) < 0.01 1.42 (0.79–2.52) 0.23 1.72 (0.96–3.03) 0.06
Child Factors
 Sex of child
  Female 1     1  
  Male 1.28 (1.05–1.56) 0.01    1.47 (1.14-1.89) < 0.01
 Age of Child (months)
  0 (<  12) 1     1  
  1 (12–23) 2.33 (1.62–3.37) < 0.01    2.56 (1.67–3.91) < 0.01
  2 (24–35) 2.92 (2.17–3.93) < 0.01    3.65 (2.23–5.95) < 0.01
  3 (36–47) 2.42 (1.76–3.32) < 0.01    3.61 (2.05–6.25) < 0.01
  4 (48–59) 2.13 (1.54–2.95) < 0.01    2.28 (1.16–4.46) 0.01
 Child size at birth
  Average 1     1  
  Smaller than average 1.56 (1.21–2.01) < 0.01    1.48 (1.02–2.16) 0.03
  Larger than average 0.54 (0.34–0.86) 0.01    0.55 (0.33–092) 0.02
 Antenatal clinic visits
  None 1     1  
  1–3 0.57 (0.39–0.84) < 0.01    0.68 (0.45–1.00) 0.05
  3+ 0.35 (0.24–0.51) < 0.01    0.61 (0.38–0.98) 0.04
 Recent diarrheal incidence
  No 1     1  
  Yes 1.14 (0.90–1.45) 0.26    1.06 (0.79–1.40) 0.67
 Breastfeeding status
  Never breastfed 1     1  
  Ever breastfed 1.49 (0.72–3.05) 0.27    0.94 (0.37–2.43) 0.91
  Still breastfeeding 1.19 (0.58–2.45) 0.62    1.34 (0.50–3.55) 0.55
  1. Model 0 = Univariate Analysis (cOR: Crude Odds Ratio)
  2. Model 1 = Adjusted with Residence, mother’s education level, wealth index, mother’s employment status, mother’s age at marriage, parity, mother’s access to information, consanguineous marriage, mother’s height and mother’s BMI (aOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio)
  3. Model 2 = Model 1 + Sex of child, age of child, child’s size at birth, antenatal clinic visits, recent diarrheal incidence, and breastfeeding status (aOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio)