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Table 3 Socio-demographic characteristics of Pakistani children in the age range of < 5 years (n = 3071)

From: Determinants of stunting, underweight and wasting among children < 5 years of age: evidence from 2012-2013 Pakistan demographic and health survey

Variables Total Stunted Underweight Wasted
Maternal factors n % (%) (%) (%)
 Residence
 Urban 1330 43.3 39.9 21.4 9.8
 Rural 1741 56.7 48.8 30.5 10.9
Mother’s educational level
 No education 1606 52.3 55.0 34.0 12.3
 Primary 497 16.2 45.7 26.8 8.9
 Secondary 626 20.4 29.1 15.7 8.3
 Higher 342 11.1 25.7 11.4 7.6
Wealth index
 Poorest 634 20.6 62.3 37.9 12.8
 Poorer 613 20.0 54.8 32.8 11.1
 Middle 554 18.0 44.0 25.8 10.6
 Richer 658 21.4 38.8 20.7 8.8
 Richest 612 19.9 24.5 15.7 8.7
Mother’s employment status (n = 3064)
 Non-Working 2423 79.1 43.0 24.8 10.4
 Working 641 20.9 52.7 33.4 10.3
Mother’s age at marriage (years)
 <  18 1281 41.7 52.1 31.9 11.0
 ≥ 18 1790 58.3 39.8 22.7 9.9
Parity
 1–4 2060 67.1 40.7 26.4 10.1
 5+ 1011 32.9 53.5 26.9 10.9
Mother’s access to information
 No 859 28.0 54.1 32.5 12.5
 Yes 2212 72.0 41.1 24.3 9.6
Consanguineous marriage
 No 1159 37.7 38.4 21.0 9.8
 Yes 1912 62.3 48.9 30.0 10.7
Mother’s height (cm) (n = 3064)
 Short Stature (< 145 cm) 132 4.3 70.5 50.0 11.4
 Normal (≥ 145 cm) 2924 95.7 43.9 25.6 10.4
Mother’s BMI (kg/m2) (n = 3061)
 Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2) 364 11.9 58.5 45.3 15.7
 Normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 1657 54.3 45.6 28.2 11.1
 Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) 696 22.8 43.1 18.7 8.5
 Obese (≥ 30 kg/m2) 336 11.0 32.1 16.1 5.1
Child Factors
 Sex of child
  Male 1558 50.7 46.8 28.2 11.6
  Female 1513 49.3 43.0 24.9 9.2
 Child size at birth (n = 3066)
  Smaller than average 542 17.7 51.8 34.7 12.7
  Average 2280 74.4 44.7 25.4 10.0
  Larger than average 244 8.0 32.0 18.4 8.6
 Antenatal clinic visits (n = 1967)
  None 439 22.3 57.4 33.0 13.9
  1–3 716 36.4 44.4 30.0 12.7
  3+ 812 41.3 33.1 20.0 10.8
 Recent diarrheal incidence (last two weeks) (n = 3076)
  No 2395 78.1 44.8 25.4 9.6
  Yes 672 21.9 45.7 31.0 13.4
 Breastfeeding status (n = 3066)
  Ever breastfeed 2016 65.8 48.5 25.3 8.0
  Never breastfed 84 2.7 33.3 19.0 8.3
  Still breastfeeding 966 31.5 38.6 29.8 15.4
 Age of Child (months)
  0 (< 12 months) 580 18.9 25.0 24.0 15.2
  1 (12-23 months) 551 17.9 45.2 28.7 15.6
  2 (24-35 months) 652 21.2 54.3 28.5 8.1
  3 (36-47 months) 633 20.6 50.1 25.6 7.7
  4 (48–59 months) 655 21.3 48.1 26.1 6.6
 Region
  Punjab 1018 33.1 37.7 23.8 8.3
  Sindh 704 22.9 55.1 40.1 12.9
  Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 541 17.6 37.9 24.0 11.5
  Balochistan 292 9.5 78.8 33.6 12.7
  Gilgit Baltistan 301 9.8 41.5 12.0 7.0
  Islamabad capital territory (ICT) 215 7.0 22.3 13.0 11.2