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Table 1 Description and analysis coding plan of the selected study variables

From: Determinants of stunting, underweight and wasting among children < 5 years of age: evidence from 2012-2013 Pakistan demographic and health survey

Variables Description and Categorization Analysis Coding
Outcome variable
 Stunting (Height-for-age index) Height/Age standard deviation (new WHO) (Continuous) 0 = Normal height-for-age/Not-stunted (HAZ -2SD and Above) 1 = Stunted (HAZ < -2SD)
 Underweight (Weight-for age index) Weight/Age standard deviation (new WHO) (Continuous) 0 = Normal weight-for-age/Not-underweight (WAZ-2SD and Above) 1 = Underweight (WAZ < -2SD)
 Wasting (Weight-for-height index) Weight/Height standard deviation (new WHO) (Continuous) 0 = Normal weight-for-height/Not-wasted (WHZ-2SD to +2SD) 1 = Wasted (WHZ < -2SD)
Independent variables
 Residence Type of place of residence (1 = Urban,2 = Rural) Used same coding for analysis
 Mother’s educational level Highest educational level (0 = no education,1 = primary,2 = secondary,3 = higher) Used same coding for analysis
 Wealth index Wealth index (1 = poorest, 2 = poorer, 3 = middle, 4 = richer, 5 = richest) Used same coding for analysis
 Mother’s employment status Respondent currently working (0 = Non-working, 1 = Working) Used same coding for analysis
 Mother’s access to information 1. Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine
2. Frequency of listening to radio
3. Frequency of watching television (0 = Not at all, 1 = Occasionally, 2 = Atleast once a week, 3 = Daily)
Options for all the three variables were recoded as follows
0 as 0 = No (No Access)
1,2&3 as 1 = Yes (Access to at least one of the information source)
 Consanguineous marriage Blood relation with husband (0 = No, 1 = Yes) Used same coding for analysis
 Mother’s age at marriage Age at first cohabitation (Continuous,Range:10–49) Constructed as
1 = < 18
2= > 18
 Parity Total children ever born (Continuous,Range:1–19) Constructed as
1 = 1–4
2= > 4 (5+)
 Mother’s height (cm) Respondent’s height in centimeters (1 decimal)(Continuous) Constructed as follows
1 = Normal (>145 cm)
2 = Short Stature (< 145 cm)
 Mother’s BMI (kg/m2) Body Mass Index (Continuous, calculated using measured height and weight) 1 = Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2)
2 = Normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2)
3 = Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2)
4 = Obese (≥ 30 kg/m2)
 Age of Child (years) Current age of the child (Continuous) Constructed as
0 = < 12 months
1 = 12–23 months
2 = 24–35 months
3 = 36–47 months
4 = 48–59 months
 Sex of child Sex of child (1 = Male, 2 = Female) Used same coding for analysis
 Child size at birth Size of child at birth
(1 = very large,2 = larger than average,3 = average,4 = smaller than average,5 = very small,6 = Don’t know)
Options were recoded as follows
4 & 5 as 1 = smaller than average
3 & 6 as 2 = average
1 &2 as 3 = larger than average
 Antenatal clinic visits Number of antenatal visits during pregnancy (0 = No antenatal visit, 98 = Don’t know) Constructed as follows
0 & 98 as 0 = No Visit 1–3 as 1 = Less frequent visits
Visit frequency > 3 as 2 = Frequent visits (3+)
 Recent diarrheal incidence (last two weeks) Had diarrhea recently (0 = No,1 = Yes, last 24 h,2 = Yes, last 2 weeks, 8 = Don’t Know) Recoded as
0as 0 = No
1&2as1 = Yes
8 = Excluded
 Breastfeeding status Duration of breastfeeding (93 = Ever breastfeeding, 94 = Never breastfeed, 95 = Still breastfeeding, 96 = Breastfed until died,97 = Inconsistent, 98 = Don’t know) Used same coding for analysis (No data were found for 96,97,98)