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Table 4 Bivariate and multivariate analyses: Violent and non-violent offenders prior to conscription and causes of death

From: Adolescent criminality: multiple adverse health outcomes and mortality pattern in Swedish men

  Suicide Alcohol and drug-related diagnosis Accident Circulatory disease Neoplasm Other diagnosis Total death
HR (crude) HR (crude) HR (crude) HR (crude) HR (crude) HR (crude) HR (crude)
Non-violent vs, no crime 2.70, 2.13–3.41 5.94, 4.85–7.28 4.46, 3.60–5.52 2.03, 1.47–2.83 1.29,0.93–1.80 1.50, 1.24–1.82 2.72, 2.43–3.04
Violent vs. no crime 6.84, 4.02–11.63 12.18, 7.49–19.80 4.96, 2.46–9.98 1.50, 0.37–6.01 2.57, 1.07–6.20 2.80, 1.33–5.89 4.69, 3.44–6.38
  HR adjusteda HR adjusteda HR adjusteda Circulatory disease Neoplasm HR adjusteda HR adjusteda
Non-violent vs, no crime 1.37, 1.03–1.81 1.79, 1.39–2.31 2.32, 1.75–3.07 1.85, 1.29–2.66 1.30, 0.91–1.86 1.55, 1.27–1.89 2,16, 1.93–2.42
Violent vs. no crime 2.14, 1.12–4.11 2.81, 1.66–4.77 2.54, 1.17–5.48 1.78, 0.44–7.13 3.10, 1.29–7.48 2.68, 1.20–5.99 4.29, 3.08–5.96
  1. aAdjusted for medication for own psychiatric problems, intelligence, emotional control, psychiatric diagnosis at conscription, conduct problems at school, previous contacts with police and/or juvenile authorities, problem drinking and substance use