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Table 3 Violent and non-violent offenders prior to conscription and causes of death. Chi2, Signa

From: Adolescent criminality: multiple adverse health outcomes and mortality pattern in Swedish men

  No crime (n = 45,896) Non-violent (n = 2744) Violent (n = 194) Chi2, Sign.
Suicide (n = 487) 0.93% 1.82% 5.15% χ2 = 30.18, p < .0001
Alcohol and drug- related diagnosis (n = 378) 0.59% 3.35% 6.70% χ2 = 159.31, p < .0001
Accident (n = 420) 0.75% 2.55% 2.58% χ2 = 139.29, p < .0001
Circulatory disease (n = 400) 0.78% 1.49% 1.03% χ2 = 15.52, p = .0004
Neoplasm (n = 560) 1.13% 1.35% 2.58% χ2 = 4.95, p = .0843
Other cause (n = 426) 0.78% 2.33% 3.09% χ2 = 32.90, p < .0001
All causes (n = 2671) 4.96% 12.89% 21.13% χ2 = 296.33, p < .0001
  1. aLikelihood ratio test adjusted for time and mortality (PHREG)