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Table 3 Binary logistic regression of factors independently associated with low adherence (< 3 pills per week or no show at month 1) among Thai MSM and TGW (N = 653)

From: Correlates of nonadherence to key population-led HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis services among Thai men who have sex with men and transgender women

Variables Univariate Multivariable
aOR 95% CI p aOR 95% CI p
Demographic data
 Age (years) 0.002   0.044
  Age ≤ 25 1.67 1.20–2.31 1.49 1.01–2.21
  Age > 25 Ref Ref
 Gender < 0.001   0.005
  TGW 3.8 2.38–6.08 2.2 1.27–3.83
  Male Ref Ref
 Sites < 0.001  
  Chiang Mai/Songkhla 0.99 0.55–1.75 0.97 0 .53–1.79 0.924
  Chonburi 4.24 2.74–6.56 2.91 1.55–5.45 0.001
  Bangkok Ref Ref
 Nationality 0.01   0.28
  Thai Ref Ref
  Foreigner 2.57 1.24–5.30 1.57 0.70–3.52
 Marital status 0.52  
  Single Ref
  Living together/Married 0.98 0.58–1.67
  Divorced/Widow 0.33 0.04–2.82
 Education* < 0.001  
  Less than Bachelor degree 2.76 1.97–3.86
  Bachelor degree and above Ref
 Occupation* < 0.001  
  Unemployed/Student 1.1 0.72–1.69 0.93 0.57–1.52 0.76
  Employed Ref Ref
  Service Worker (beautician, restaurant, etc.) 3.31 2.05–5.33 1.09 0.57–2.10 0.92
 Income (THB)* 0.0029  
  Less than or equal 20,000 THB 1.73 1.20–2.49
  Greater than 20,000 THB Ref
 Have ever had HIV testing/services at clinic before enrollment in this study 0.16   0.04
  New Client 1.37 0.87–2.16 1.68 1.03–2.76
  Yes Ref Ref
Risk behavior at baseline
 Age at first sexual intercourse (years) 0.19  
  < 18 1.26 0.89–1.78
  ≥ 18 Ref
 HIV perceive risk in the past 3 months 0.39  
  No risk 1.71 0.89–3.28
  Mild 1.07 0.66–1.74
  Moderate 1.16 0.72–1.89
  High Ref
 Number of sexual partners in the past 3 months (all MSM, female and TG) 0.93  
  No sexual partner/Single partner Ref
  Multiple partners 1.02 0.68–1.52
 Number of sex partners in past 3 months (all MSM, female and TG) 0.27  
  < 3 Ref
  ≥ 3 1.23 0.85–1.80
 Condom use (anal receptive or insertive) in the past 3 months 0.42  
  Safe sex (No sexual activity + Always) Ref
  Unprotected sex (Never + Sometimes) 1.15 0.82–1.63
 Substance/stimulant/drug use in the past 3 months 0.98  
  No Ref
  Yes (Overall participants that reported substance/stimulant/drug use at least once) 1 0.70–1.41
 Amphetamine-type stimulant use in the past 3 months 0.83  
  None Ref
  Yes 0.93 0.47–1.84
 Symptoms of STI or previously diagnosed with STI (gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, syphilis) in the past 3 months 0.67  
  None Ref
  Yes, have any STI 0.85 0.49–1.46
  Unsure 1.21 0.65–2.22
 Had group sex in the past 3 months 0.61  
  Didn’t have group sex Ref
  Yes, times of group sex < 3 1.27 0.56–2.89
  Yes, times of group sex ≥3 1.15 0.74–1.79
  If yes, number of partners during group sex 0.73  
   Didn’t have group sex Ref
   Yes, # of sex partners during group sex each time < 3 1.27 0.56–2.89
   Yes, # of sex partners during group sex each time ≥ 3 1.15 0.74–1.79
  If yes, condom usage during group sex 0.29  
   Didn’t have group sex Ref
   None or Sometimes 1.65 0.88–3.11
   Always 0.97 0.58–1.60
  If yes, substance usage during group sex 0.61  
   Didn’t have group sex Ref
   Never 1.32 0.76–2.28
   Sometimes or Always 1 0.57–1.73
  1. *Education, occupation, and income were found to have collinearity. Occupation was chosen to include into the final logistic model