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Table 2 Bivariate associations of participant sexual risk behavior and adherence subgroups among MSM and TG (N = 653)

From: Correlates of nonadherence to key population-led HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis services among Thai men who have sex with men and transgender women

Variables Total N (%) Low Adherence: ≤ 3 Pills per week or no show at month 1 N (%) Good Adherence: 4–7 Pills per week N (%) p-value
Age at first sexual intercourse (years)
 Median (IQR) 18 (16–21) 18 (15–20) 18 (16–21) 0.12a
 < 18 220 (33.7) 86 (39.1) 134 (60.9) 0.19b
 ≥ 18 376 (57.6) 127 (33.8) 249 (66.2)  
Sexual partners in lifetime
 Male only 432 (66.2) 153 (35.4) 279 (64.6)  
 TGW only 15 (2.3) 12 (80.0) 3 (20.0)
 Male & Female 116 (17.8) 37 (31.9) 79 (68.1)
 Male & TGW 6 (0.9) 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0)
 Female & TGW 5 (0.8) 1 (20.0) 4 (80.0)
 Male/Female/TGW 19 (2.9) 6 (31.6) 13 (68.4)
HIV perceived risk in the past 3 months 0.38b
 No risk 59 (9) 27 (45.8) 32 (54.2)
 Mild 217 (33.2) 75 (34.6) 142 (65.4)
 Moderate 222 (34) 81 (36.5) 141 (63.5)
 High 109 (16.7) 36 (33.0) 73 (67.0)
Had sexual intercourse with male partner in past 3 months 581 (89) 209 (36.0) 372 (64.0) 0.61b
 Median (IRQ) of male partners 3 (2–8) 4 (2–10) 3 (2–5) 0.008a
Had sexual intercourse with female partner in past 3 months 43 (6.6) 20 (46.5) 23 (53.5)  
 Median (IRQ) of female partners 1 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 1 (1–3)  
Had sexual intercourse with TGW partner in the past 3 months 16 (2.5) 7 (43.8) 9 (56.2)  
 Median (IRQ) of TG partners 1 (1–3) 1.5 (1–4) 1 (1–2.5)  
Number of sexual partners in the past 3 months (all MSM, female and TGW) 0.09b
 No sexual partner 17 (2.6) 8 (47.1) 9 (52.9)
 Single partner 122 (18.7) 40 (32.8) 82 (67.2)
 Multiple partners 418 (64.0) 146 (34.9) 272 (65.1)
 Had sexual intercourse in the past 3 months but didn’t specify number of sex partners 51 (7.8) 26 (51.0) 25 (49.0)
Number of sex partners in past 3 months (all MSM, female and TGW) (median, IQR) 3.5 (2–8) 4 (2–10) 3 (2–6) 0.006a
Condom use (anal receptive or insertive) in the past 3 months 0.42b
 Protected sex (No sexual activity + Always) 285 (43.6) 96 (33.7) 189 (66.3)
 Unprotected sex (Never + Sometimes) 276 (42.3) 102 (37.0) 174 (63.0)
Substance/stimulant/drug use in the past 3 months 0.98b
 No 374 (57.3) 134 (35.8) 240 (64.2)
 Yes (Overall participants that reported substance/stimulant/drug use at least once) 221 (33.8) 79 (35.7) 142 (64.3)
If “Yes”, substance/stimulant/drug use in the past 3 months
 Alcohol 128 (19.6) 48 (37.5) 80 (62.5)  
 Methamphetamine/amphetamine 33 (5.1) 12 (36.4) 21 (63.6)
 Ecstasy 7 (1.1) 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1)
 Drug Application (Ketamine). 6 (0.9) 4 (66.7) 2 (33.3)
 Poppers 82 (12.6) 20 (24.4) 62 (75.6)
 Cocaine 5 (0.8) 4 (80.0) 1 (20.0)
 Marijuana 7 (1.1) 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1)
 Barbiturates or other sedatives 1 (0.2) 1 (100.0) 0 (0)
 Viagra or other drugs in same group 59 (9.0) 20 (33.9) 39 (66.1)
Amphetamine-type stimulant used in past 3 months 0.83b
 No 571 (87.4) 206 (36.1) 365 (63.9)
 Yes 37 (5.7) 14 (37.8) 23 (62.2)
Symptoms of STI or previously diagnosed with STI (gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, syphilis) in the past 3 months 0.67b
 None 472 (72.3) 170 (36.0) 302 (64.0)
 Yes, have any STI 68 (10.4) 22 (32.4) 46 (67.6)
 Unsure 47 (7.2) 19 (40.4) 28 (59.6)
Had group sex in the past 3 months 0.44b
 No 435 (66.7) 150 (34.5) 285 (65.5)
 Yes 131 (20.1) 50 (38.2) 81 (61.8)
 Yes, Median (IQR) # of times of group sex 3 (1–3) 2.5 (2–3) 3 (1–3) 0.88a
 Yes, Median (IQR) of # of partners during group sex each time 3 (3–3) 3 (3–3) 3 (3–3) 0.89a
 If yes, use of condom during group sex 0.09c
  No 5 (3.8) 4 (80.0) 1 (20.0)
  Sometimes 38 (29.0) 16 (42.1) 22 (57.9)
  Always 80 (61.1) 27 (33.8) 53 (66.3)
 If yes, use of stimulants/drugs before/during group sex 0.34b
  No 61 (46.6) 25 (41.0) 36 (59.0)
  Sometimes 46 (35.1) 18 (39.1) 28 (60.9)
  Always 18 (13.7) 4 (22.2) 14 (77.8)
  1. aMann-Whitney/Wilcoxon rank-sum test
  2. bChi square test
  3. cFisher’s Exact test
  4. IQR interquartile range, MSM men who have sex with men, TGW transgender women, STI sexually transmitted infection