Skip to main content

Table 3 Theoretical determinants, methods and practical strategies

From: Using an intervention mapping approach to develop prevention and rehabilitation strategies for musculoskeletal pain among surgeons

Theoretical determinants
Change objectives
Theory-based methods Practical strategies
Knowledge
 The benefits of strength training
 Impact of work on musculoskeletal health
 Physical ergonomic guidelines and ergonomic equipment
 The benefits of micro-breaks
Personalise risk
Modelling
Active learning
Mandatory workshops must be introduced on surgical wards to give surgeons knowledge about potential musculoskeletal pain while working as a surgeon, and about the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain
Skills
 Perform strength training
 Prevent negative impacts of work
 Use ergonomic equipment
 Perform micro-breaks
Guided practice
Active learning
At workshops surgeons learn skills to prevent and rehabilitate musculoskeletal pain
Attitude
 Prioritise physical exercise training
 Acceptance of negative impact of work on musculoskeletal health
 Positive acceptance of ergonomic equipment
 Acceptance of usefulness of micro-breaks
 Articulation and shared understanding of working conditions
Modelling
Verbal persuasion
Appointed health ambassadors help produce a positive attitude to health promotion initiatives on local surgical wards
Social influence
 Surgeons, management, and the hospital build up a positive and sustainable healthy working environment on surgical wards
Verbal persuasion
Modelling
Surgeons and management prioritise and enforce the importance of health promotion initiatives.
Ward management initiates upstart meetings with newly appointed surgeons to promote health initiatives.
Self-efficacy
 Believe in their ability to organise exercise training
 Believe that a preventive effort will pay off in the long-term
 Believes in the preventive effect of ergonomic equipment
 Believe in the preventive effect of micro-breaks
Modelling
Active learning
Verbal persuasion
Appointed health ambassadors initiate and maintain health promotion initiatives on local surgical wards.
Ward management establish the structures that make it possible for surgeons to perform health promotion activities at work.
Outcome expectations
 Strength training leads to a healthier musculoskeletal system
 Prioritising micro-breaks leads to a healthier musculoskeletal system
 Using ergonomic equipment leads to a healthier musculoskeletal system
 Mutual understanding of work-related musculoskeletal pain leads to acceptance and better musculoskeletal health
Modelling
Verbal persuasion
At workshops, surgeons receive knowledge about the consequences of suffering from musculoskeletal pain
At workshops surgeons get detailed knowledge about benefits from health promotion activities. Health ambassadors support surgeons’ health and initiatives for maintaining good work ability for surgeons.