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Table 4 Average concentrations of pollutants (μg/m3) in households of cases and controls with different characteristics

From: Association of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis with exposure to indoor air pollution: a case control study

  PM10 concentrations Mean NO2 concentrations
median (range) (μg/m3) median (range) (μg/m3)
cases (n = 107) controls (n = 127) cases (n = 107) controls (n = 127)
Child Characteristics
Age
  > 2 to ≤15 41 (21–118)) 41 (12–119) 14 (7.0–45) 17 (9.4–26)
≤2 49 (6.6–173) 47 (27–223) 19 (6.0–34) 16 (4.5–55)
Sex
  Female 48 (18–173) 41 (13–223) 15 (6.0–32) 16 (4.5–30)
Male 49 (6.6–148) 41 (12–119) 15 (8.2–45) 16 (9.4–55)
HIV positive**
  No 43 (6.6–148) 41 (12–223) 15 (6.0–45) 16 (4.5–55)
Yes 53 (26–173) 69 (31–105) 15 (7.5–34) 16 (9.4–26)
Household TB contact
  No 48 (22–173) 41.0 (12–136) 14 (6.0–34) 15 (4.5–52)
Yes 49 (6.6–149) 55 (35–223) 15 (7.0–45) 17 (9.4–55)
Maternal Characteristics
Caregiver education
  Post high school 37 (26–48) 41 (31–67) 12 (9.4–17) 15 (9.4–17.4)
High school + below 51 (6.6–172) 41 (12–223) 15 (6.0–45) 16 (4.5–55)
Household Characteristics
Type of housing structure
  Formal 41 (6.6–118) 41 (12–223) 15 (6.0–34) 16 (4.5–55)
Informal 76 (26–173) 76 (58–136) 22 (7.0–45) 21 (11–28)
Crowding
  ≤2 41 (18–148) 41 (12–223) 14 (6.0–35) 16 (4.5–52)
> 2 65 (6.6–173) 76 (27–119) 17 (7.0–45) 17 (9.41–55)
Primary cooking fuel
  Clean 43 (6.6–146) 41 (12–223) 15 (6.0–34) 16 (4.5–52)
Mix + Dirty 88 (52–173) 108 (53–119) 21.56 (7.03–44.87) 23 (20–55)
Secondary cooking fuel
  None + Clean 51 (21–173) 41 (12–223) 13 (6.0–45) 15 (9.4–28)
Mix + Dirty 46 (6.6–146) 51 (13–136) 20 (9.0–35) 17 (4.5–55)
Secondhand smoke
  No 48 (18–148) 41 (11–136) 14 (6.0–44 16 (4.5–55)
Yes 48 (6.6–173) 64 (24–223) 16 (7.0–34) 16 (9.4–29)
Presence of opening windows
  Some rooms 43 (6.6–148) 41 (12–223) 14.5 (6.0–45) 16 (4.5–55)
No room 72 (37–172) 76 (27–136) 21 (8.4–35) 21 (11–30)
Burning of incense
  No 48 (6.6–172) 41 (12–223) 18.0 (6.0–45) 16 (9.9–55)
Yes 49 (21–114) 51 (13–136) 13 (7.5–29) 15 (4.5–44)
Visible surface water stains/dampness
  No room 41 (18–119) 41 (13–119) 15 (6.0–35) 16 (9.4–44)
Some rooms 51 (6.6–173) 48 (12–223) 15 (7.0–45) 16 (4.5–55)
  1. Significantly different concentrations between households with different characteristics for both cases and controls are shown in bold