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Table 2 Frequency of child, maternal and household characteristics of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis cases and controls

From: Association of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis with exposure to indoor air pollution: a case control study

  cases (n = 107) controls (n = 127) Crude OR (p-value)
n (%) n (%)
Household Characteristics
Type of home
  Formal 71 (66) 97 (76)  
Informal 36 (34) 30 (24) 1.6 (0.9–2.9)
Total number of rooms in the household
  ≥4 60 (56) 86 (68)  
1–3 47 (44) 41 (32) 0.6 (0.4–1.04)
Presence of an opening window
  All or some rooms 95 (89) 116 (91)  
No room 12 (11) 11 (9) 0.7 (0.3–1.8)
Visible surface water stains/dampness
  No room 28 (26) 49 (39)  
All or some rooms 79 (74) 78 (61) 1.8 (1.01–3.1)
Visible mold growth presence
  No room 57 (53) 79 (62)  
All or some rooms 50 (47) 48 (38) 0.1 (0.9–2.4)
Burning of incense
  No room 63 (59) 76 (60)  
All or some rooms 44 (41) 51 (40) 1.04 (0.6–1.8)
Primary cooking fuel
  Clean 91 (85) 119 (94)  
Mix + Dirty 16 (15) 8 (6) 2.6 (1.1–6.4)
Secondary cooking fuel
  None+ Clean 57 (53) 82 (65)  
Mix + Dirty 50 (47) 45 (35) 1.6 (0.9–2.7)
Secondhand smoke
  No 56 (52) 82 (65)  
Yes 51 (48) 45 (35) 1.7 (0.98–2.8)
Crowding (persons per room)
  ≤2 64 (60) 93 (73)  
> 2 43 (40) 34 (27) 1.8 (1.1–3.2)
  1. Significant difference in households with different characteristics for both cases and controls are shown in bold