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Table 1 Association of stress, demographics, and clinical characteristics compared by sex (unit: individual, %)

From: The impact of smoking cessation attempts on stress levels

  Total Male Female
Total Yes No p-value Total High Low p-value Total High Low p-value
N % % % N % % % N % % %
Smoking cessation Succeed 226,030 46.3 73.0 27.0 < 0.001 208,903 46.5 72.6 27.4 < 0.001 17,127 43.4 78.1 21.9 < 0.001
Failed 175,039 35.8 83.8 16.2 161,413 36.0 83.6 16.4 13,626 34.6 86.3 13.7
Did not attempt 87,348 17.9 81.1 18.9 78,660 17.5 81.2 18.8 8688 22.0 80.3 19.8
Age ~ 20 2269 0.5 80.9 19.1 < 0.001 1965 0.4 79.1 20.9 < 0.001 304 0.8 92.4 7.6 < 0.001
20 ~ 30 35,201 7.2 86.8 13.2 30,728 6.8 85.9 14.1 4473 11.3 92.4 7.6
30~40 76,086 15.6 91.1 8.9 69,099 15.4 91.0 9.0 6987 17.7 91.9 8.1
40~50 102,336 21.0 88.5 11.5 95,655 21.3 88.5 11.5 6681 16.9 87.9 12.1
50~60 104,658 21.4 80.4 19.6 98,092 21.9 80.1 19.9 6566 16.7 84.2 15.8
60~ 167,867 34.4 63.3 36.7 153,437 34.2 62.8 37.2 14,430 36.6 68.5 31.6
Sex Male 448,976 91.9 78.1 22.0 < 0.001    
Female 39,441 8.1 81.4 18.6
Family income High 125,653 25.7 81.6 18.4 < 0.001 119,466 26.6 81.5 18.5 < 0.001 6187 15.7 83.0 17.1 < 0.001
Upper-intermediate 119,326 24.4 83.9 16.2 111,949 24.9 83.8 16.3 7377 18.7 85.4 14.7
Low-intermediate 162,073 33.2 77.5 22.5 147,703 32.9 76.8 23.2 14,370 36.4 85.1 14.9
Low 81,365 16.7 66.8 33.2 69,858 15.6 65.7 34.3 11,507 29.2 73.5 26.5
Family number 1 48,956 10.0 75.8 24.2 < 0.001 38,300 8.5 76.2 23.8 < 0.001 10,656 27.0 74.2 25.8 < 0.001
2 174,336 35.7 70.0 30.0 162,257 36.1 69.1 30.9 12,079 30.6 82.5 17.5
3 103,766 21.3 82.2 17.8 96,017 21.4 82.0 18.0 7749 19.7 85.1 14.9
4 and more 161,359 33.0 85.6 14.4 152,402 33.9 85.6 14.4 8957 22.7 85.4 14.6
Marital status Cohabiting marriage 363,908 74.5 77.5 22.5 < 0.001 346,873 77.3 77.1 22.9 < 0.001 17,035 43.2 86.2 13.8 < 0.001
Other types of marriage 55,057 11.3 73.9 26.1 38,742 8.6 74.3 25.7 16,315 41.4 72.9 27.1
Single 69,452 14.2 86.0 14.0 63,361 14.1 85.5 14.5 6091 15.4 91.0 9.0
Education level University or more 167,768 34.4 85.3 14.8 < 0.001 160,001 35.6 85.1 14.9 < 0.001 7767 19.7 89.0 11.0 < 0.001
High school 167,016 34.2 81.3 18.7 153,622 34.2 80.7 19.4 13,394 34.0 88.8 11.2
Middle school 61,343 12.6 72.0 28.0 57,169 12.7 71.1 28.9 4174 10.6 84.3 15.7
Under Elementary school 92,290 18.9 64.5 35.5 78,184 17.4 63.6 36.4 14,106 35.8 69.5 30.6
Job Office worker 99,546 20.4 88.5 11.6 < 0.001 95,257 21.2 88.3 11.7 < 0.001 4289 10.9 91.4 8.6 < 0.001
Site worker 272,149 55.7 79.2 20.8 257,838 57.4 78.8 21.2 14,311 36.3 85.9 14.1
Unemployed or homemaker 116,722 23.9 67.6 32.4 95,881 21.4 65.7 34.3 20,841 52.8 76.3 23.7
Alcohol use Yes 389,832 79.8 80.6 19.5 < 0.001 363,894 81.1 80.2 19.8 < 0.001 25,938 65.8 85.3 14.7 < 0.001
No 98,585 20.2 69.5 30.5 85,082 19.0 68.8 31.2 13,503 34.2 73.9 26.1
Self-reported health condition Good 393,605 80.6 78.7 21.3 < 0.001 367,593 81.9 78.5 21.5 < 0.001 26,012 66.0 81.9 18.1 < 0.001
Bad 94,812 19.4 76.7 23.3 81,383 18.1 76.1 23.9 13,429 34.1 80.4 19.6
Underlying Chronic Disease Yes 184,916 37.9 73.4 26.6 < 0.001 168,407 37.5 73.2 26.8 < 0.001 16,509 41.9 76.1 23.9 < 0.001
No 303,501 62.1 81.3 18.7 280,569 62.5 81.0 19.0 22,932 58.1 85.3 14.7
Survey year 2011 78,725 16.1 79.3 20.7 < 0.001 72,530 16.2 79.1 20.9 < 0.001 6195 15.7 82.0 18.0 0.211
2012 79,762 16.3 79.3 20.7 73,486 16.4 79.1 20.9 6276 15.9 82.1 17.9
2013 81,503 16.7 78.5 21.6 74,908 16.7 78.3 21.7 6595 16.7 80.6 19.4
2014 82,859 17.0 78.1 21.9 76,278 17.0 77.8 22.2 6581 16.7 81.3 18.7
2015 82,275 16.9 77.8 22.2 75,486 16.8 77.5 22.5 6789 17.2 81.1 18.9
2016 83,293 17.1 77.1 22.9 76,288 17.0 76.7 23.3 7005 17.8 81.6 18.4
Total   488,417 100.0 78.3 21.7   448,976 100.0 78.1 22.0   39,441 100.0 81.4 18.6