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Table 1 Differences in Participant and Agency Characteristics by Country

From: A cross-country study of mis-implementation in public health practice

  Australia Brazil China United States Chi-Sq p-value
  N = 121 N = 76 N = 102 N = 101   
Characteristic % n % n % n % n   
Participant Demographics           
 Female 88.4% 107 65.8% 50 71.7% 71 87.1% 88 32.9 < 0.0001
 Age          89.0 < 0.0001
  21–29 20.7% 25 8.2% 6 21.6% 22 6.9% 7   
  30–39 33.1% 40 38.4% 28 56.9% 58 21,8% 22   
  40–49 14.9% 18 31.5% 23 10.8% 11 28.7% 29   
  50–59 20.7% 25 21.1% 16 3.9% 4 28.7% 29   
  60+ 10.7% 13 3.9% 3 0.0% 0 10.9% 11   
  Missing 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 6.7% 7 3.0% 3   
 Education/Credentials          92.5 < 0.0001
  Doctorate 14.2% 17 4.0% 3 0.0% 0 6.9% 7   
  Master’s 42.5% 51 32.0% 24 23.5% 24 48.5% 49   
  Bachelor’s 30.0% 36 22.7% 17 68.6% 70 27.8% 28   
  Other 13.3% 16 41.3% 31 7.8% 8 15.8% 16   
  Missing 0.8% 1 1.3% 1 0.0% 0 1.0% 1   
Primary Position
  Physician 37.2% 45 1.3% 1 2.9% 3 41.6% 42 77.4 < 0.0001
  Community Health Nurse 3.3% 4 13.2% 10 43.1% 44 7.9% 8 73.8 < 0.0001
  Department Head 5.0% 6 28.9% 22 5.9% 6 14.9% 15 30.2 < 0.0001
  Nutritionist 0.8% 1 9.2% 7 40.2% 41 0.0% 0 103.5 < 0.0001
  Statistician 15.7% 19 26.3% 20 3.9% 4 1.0% 1 36.5 < 0.0001
  Health Educator 13.2% 16 2.6% 2 2.0% 2 18.8% 19 22.5 < 0.0001
  Division of Bureau Head/Deputy Director 0.0% 0 11.8% 9 0.0% 0 10.9% 11 26.6 < 0.0001
  Program Manager/Administrator/Coordinator 9.1% 11 1.3% 1 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 22.4 < 0.0001
  Academic Research 9.1% 11 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 26.1 < 0.0001
  Other 1.6% 2 5.2% 4 2.0% 2 2.1% 3 6.9 < 0.0001
  Missing 5.0% 6 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 2.0% 2 4.2 < 0.0001
Agency Features
 Number of Employees          83.8 < 0.0001
  0–100 37.7% 43 38.0% 27 9.8% 10 56.4% 57   
  101–400 20.2% 23 28.2% 20 64.7% 66 24.8% 25   
  > 400 42.1% 48 33.8% 24 21.6% 22 17.8% 18   
  Missing 5.8% 7 6.7% 5 3.9% 4 1.0% 1   
 Size of Population Served          127.0 < 0.0001
  0–49,999 28.3% 30 29.4% 20 0.0% 0 23.8% 24   
  50,000-99,999 10.4% 11 10.3% 7 0.0% 0 24.8% 25   
  100,000-399,999 20.8% 22 27.9% 19 81.4% 83 25.8% 26   
  > 400,000 40.6% 43 32.4% 22 18.6% 19 23.8% 24   
  Missing 12.3% 15 10.5% 8 0.0% 0 2.0% 2   
  1. Boldface indicates significant at alpha < 0.05