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Table 1 Prevalence of Diabetic Complications in China from Published Research

From: Complications of diabetes in China: health system and economic implications

Observation Period Study Site Study Population Prevalence of Complications
Overall Different Kind of Complications
1980s [31] 2 northern cities 447 patients with diabetes   Proteinuria: 57.1%; Retinopathy: 47.4%
1986 [29] 1 northern city (Da Qing Study) 423 newly diagnosed patients with diabetes   Microaneurysms and/or small intraretinal haemorrhage: 15.4%; Soft exudates: 5.5%; Hard exudates:7.1%; Proliferative retinopathy: 2.3%
2001 [43] 1 northern city (Beijing Eye Study) 4439 inhabitants over 40 years old   Retinopathy: 6.5%
1998 and 2006 [24] Throughout China (Diabcare Study) 2246 diabetes patients in 1998 and 2702 in 2006   Neuropathy & retinopathy: 84% in 1998 and 78% in 2006
2007 [25, 26] 20 hospitals from 4 cities 1524 T2D outpatients 52.0% ≥1 Macrovascular: 33.4%; Microvascular: 34.7%; Cardiovascular: 30.1%; Nephropathy:10.7%; Foot disease: 0.8%; Ocular lesions: 14.8%; Cerebrovascular conditions:6.8%; Neuropathy:17.8%
524 T2D inpatients 90.7% ≥1; 80.0% ≥2
2007 [27] 1 hospital in 1 middle city 295 diabetes inpatients 89.8% ≥1 Peripheral neuropathy: 69.2%; Hyperlipidemia: 64.1%; Macrovascular: 8.16%; Microvascular: 30.27%; Both macrovascular and microvascular:51.36%
2007–2008 [40] 1 tertiary hospital 489 diabetes inpatients 86.3% ≥1; 46.7% ≥3  
2008–2009 [64] 12 hospitals in 8 cities 1193 T2D outpatients   Peripheral neuropathy:17.0% in the total population;18.3% in the known DM group and 6.4% in the new DM group
2009 [65] City and village of Ningde Area 5385 adult She ethnic minority   Cardiovascular: 7.4%; Liver dysfunction: 19.4%; Hyperuricemia: 6.2%
2009 [32] 1 southern city 471 diabetic residents   Retinopathy: 24.4%
2005–2010 [37] 1 hospital in 1 middle-income city 2010 general patients over 60 years old   Peripheral arterial disease: 24.1%; Retinopathy: 26.4%; Neuropathy: 20.8%; Macroangiopathy: 34.6%;
2000–2011 [39] 105 hospitals across Guangdong province 3173 T1D patients   Diabetic ketoacidosis: 50.1%; Retinopathy: 8.1%; Nephropathy: 20.7%; Neuropathy: 11.1%
2011–2012 [33] 60 hospitals across Guangdong Province 4616 T2D patients   Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: 31.8%(abdominal obesity), 28.4%(without abdominal obesity) and 10.2% (without obesity)
2011–2012 [34] 62 hospitals across Guangdong Province 2954 T2D outpatients with a BMI ≥25   Stroke: 9.2%; Retinopathy: 20.9%; Nephropathy: 22.1%; Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: 31.6%
2005–2012 [42] 1 southern city 3301 T2D patients   Neuropathy: 19.4%; CKD: 27.1%; Albuminuria: 25.2%
2011–2012 [35] 2 northern city (REACTION study) 18,696 inhabitants over 40 years old (5126 with diagnosis of diabetes) 88.8% ≥ 1, 53.2% ≥ 2  
2011–2013 [41] 8 hospitals from 8 regions 452 diabetic foot ulcer patients Annual mortality: 14.4% 31.6% new ulcers; Annual incidence of amputation: 5.1%; Nephropathy: 43.1%; Retinopathy: 40.9%; Cataracts: 13.3%
881 diabetes mellitus patients Annual mortality: 2.8% 8.1% new ulcers; Annual incidence of ulceration: 8.1%; Nephropathy: 21.7%; Retinopathy: 24.9%; Cataracts: 8.5%