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Table 5 Factors associated with DEPRESSION and ANXIETY in multivariate ordered logistic regression

From: Depression and anxiety symptoms in cardiac patients: a cross-sectional hospital-based study in a Palestinian population

Variable Depression (CDS) Anxiety (DASS-anxiety)
OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value
Socio-demographic factors
 Age, mean (SD) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.393 0.96 (0.95–0.99) < 0.001
 Gender
  Female (reference)    (reference)   
  Male 0.83 (0.51–1.36) 0.469 0.68 (0.43–1.10) 0.117
 Marital status
  Married (reference)    (reference)   
  Not married 0.38 (0.22–0.65) 0.001 1.28 (0.76–2.13) 0.350
 Residence
  City (reference)    (reference)   
  Village 1.22 (0.91–1.64) 0.191 0.74 (0.54–1.00) 0.054
  Camp 1.35 (0.76–2.40) 0.308 0.56 (0.31–1.01) 0.054
 Education degree
  No HS diploma (reference)    (reference)   
  HS diploma 1.15 (0.82–1.62) 0.421 0.93 (0.65–1.31) 0.666
  College degree 1.19 (0.76–1.87) 0.449 1.09 (0.68–1.76) 0.715
 Occupation
  Professional (reference)    (reference)   
  Non-professional 0.85 (0.55–1.31) 0.472 1.15 (0.73–1.81) 0.544
  Unemployed 1.12 (0.67–1.88) 0.662 0.89 (0.54–1.48) 0.660
  Retired 0.71 (0.38–1.33) 0.289 1.44 (0.75–2.73) 0.269
  House wife 0.33 (0.14–0.80) 0.014 0.65 (0.27–1.56) 0.335
Clinical Factors
 Cardiac diagnosis
  CAD 0.89 (0.63–1.25) 0.508 0.75 (0.53–1.07) 0.111
  MI (reference)    (reference)   
  Angina 1.26 (0.83–1.92) 0.271 0.54 (0.35–0.86) 0.009
  Other 0.82 (0.49–1.37) 0.440 1.23 (0.76–1.99) 0.407
 Previous cardiac diagnosis
  Yes 0.67 (0.47–0.96) 0.028 1.52 (1.05–2.21) 0.026
  No (reference)    (reference)   
 Years with cardiac disease
  ≤ 1 year (reference)    (reference)   
  2–9 years 1.46 (1.00–2.13) 0.048 1.10 (0.76–1.59) 0.663
  ≥ 10 years 1.71 (1.06–2.75) 0.028 0.95 (0.60–1.50) 0.832
 Cardiac treatment (at admission)
  CATH/stent (reference)    (reference)   
  CATH/CABG 1.42 (0.98–2.04) 0.065 0.89 (0.62–1.29) 0.558
  CATH/other & unknown 1.34 (0.95–1.89) 0.097 1.44 (1.02–2.04) 0.036
 Co-morbidities
  None (reference)    (reference)   
  1 0.93 (0.64–1.34) 0.695 0.96 (0.65–1.43) 0.860
  2+ 1.39 (0.94–2.04) 0.096 1.36 (0.92–2.01) 0.127
 Medications
  None (reference)    (reference)   
  1–2 1.33 (0.78–2.29) 0.293 1.20 (0.68–2.10) 0.521
  3–4 1.19 (0.74–1.92) 0.470 1.31 (0.79–2.18) 0.299
 Somatic symptoms (PHQ-15)
  Minimal (reference)    (reference)   
  Low 1.18 (0.72–1.94) 0.506 1.41 (0.74–2.72) 0.296
  Medium 1.86 (1.12–3.08) 0.015 3.35 (1.76–6.35) < 0.001
  High 3.00 (1.73–5.18) < 0.001 7.64 (3.96–14.78) < 0.001
 Family history
  Yes 1.03 (0.77–1.38) 0.824 0.76 (0.57–1.03) 0.075
  No (reference)    (reference)   
 QoL, (SF-12-PCS score) 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.015 0.97 (0.96–0.99) < 0.001
Psychosocial factors
 PTSD (PTSD-PCL-S)
  Minimal (reference)    (reference)   
  Some 1.32 (0.83–2.10) 0.247 2.34 (1.47–3.71) < 0.001
  Moderate 1.87 (1.29–2.71) 0.001 3.01 (2.12–4.27) < 0.001
  High 1.28 (0.00) 0.974 7.37 (3.89–14.0) < 0.001
 Social support (ESSI)
  Low (reference)    (reference)   
  High 0.71 (0.52–0.97) 0.032 0.74 (0.54–1.00) 0.049
 Resilience (RS-14)
  Very low (reference)    (reference)   
  Low 1.05 (0.49–2.25) 0.896 0.76 (0.41–1.41) 0.381
  Low-end 0.78 (0.39–1.56) 0.479 0.43 (0.25–0.77) 0.004
  Moderate 0.60 (0.30–1.21) 0.154 0.37 (0.20–0.66) 0.001
  Moderately-high 0.48 (0.23–0.98) 0.044 0.19 (0.10–0.36) < 0.001
  High 0.42 (0.18–0.94) 0.035 0.22 (0.11–0.48) < 0.001
 Self-esteem (SE) score 0.97 (0.85–1.10) 0.640 0.85 (0.76–0.96) 0.007
 QoL,(SF-12-MCS score) 0.96 (0.95–0.97) < 0.001 0.98 (0.97–0.99) < 0.001
Lifestyle factors
 Smoking status
  Never (reference)    (reference)   
  Former 1.87 (1.17–2.97) 0.008 0.71 (0.44–1.14) 0.154
  Current 1.61 (1.11–2.33) 0.013 1.37 (0.93–2.02) 0.106
 Currently on diet
  Yes 0.59 (0.40–0.86) 0.007 1.45 (0.98–2.13) 0.060
  No (reference)    (reference)   
 Fat consumption
  Low (reference)    (reference)   
  Medium 0.73 (0.53–1.00) 0.054 1.09 (0.79–1.51) 0.583
  High 0.79 (0.55–1.14) 0.206 1.28 (0.88–1.86) 0.187
 Vegetable & fruit consumption
  Low (reference)    (reference)   
  Medium 0.83 (0.50–1.37) 0.466 0.52 (0.31–0.86) 0.011
  High 0.73 (0.45–1.19) 0.207 0.80 (0.49–1.30) 0.375
 Alcohol use
  Yes 1.31 (0.66–2.61) 0.439 1.19 (0.63–2.24) 0.591
  No (reference)    (reference)   
 Physical activity
  None (reference)    (reference)   
  Not daily 0.64 (0.42–0.98) 0.040 0.57 (0.37–0.87) 0.009
  Daily 0.43 (0.30–0.60) < 0.001 0.98 (0.70–1.38) 0.908
 BMI
  Underweight 0.63 (0.05–7.7) 0.720 2.09 (0.22–19.9) 0.522
  Normal weight (reference)    (reference)   
  Overweight 0.81 (0.55–1.18) 0.272 0.61 (0.42–0.89) 0.010
  Obese 0.95 (0.63–1.43) 0.824 0.87 (0.59–1.29) 0.495
  1. Note. Multivariate ordered logistic regression reported for socio-demographic, clinical, psychosocial and lifestyle factors associated with depression, CDS (not depressed; mild-moderate depression; severely-very severe depression) and DASS-anxiety (no anxiety, mild-moderate anxiety; severe-very severe anxiety). Analyses were performed in two separate models for depression and anxiety, mutually adjusting for all factors in the four predictor blocks in both models. Analyses are also adjusted for the hospital to which patients were admitted. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence Interval, SD Standard deviation, HS High school, MI Myocardial infarction, CAD Coronary artery disease, CATH Catheterization, CABG Coronary artery bypass graft, PHQ-15 Patient health questionnaire-15, PCS Physical component summary, PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD-PCL-S Post-traumatic stress disorder checklist, ESSI ENRICHD social support instrument, RS-14 Resilience scale-14, MCS Mental component summary, BMI Body mass index; P values in bold are significant at p < 0.05