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Table 3 Summary of association between health-related determinants of PA and cardio metabolic health outcome

From: Dietary and physical activity patterns related to cardio-metabolic health among Malaysian adolescents: a systematic review

  Author, year Cardio metabolic health outcome Association P-value
Physical activity Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Normal WC vs.AO
4170 ± 4122 vs. 4021 ± 4199
p = 0.666
Rezali et al. (2012) [42] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW &Obese (Mean ± SD)
1.06 ± 0.31 vs. 1.27 ± 0.31 vs. 1.58 ± 0.33
p < 0.01
BMI (z-score) Non OW vs. OW & obese
Beta=5.34
p < 0.05
Su et al. (2014) [29] BMI (kg/m2) OR=−0.058 p < 0.05
WC (cm) OR=−0.069 p <0.05
Body fat (%) OR=−0.088 p < 0.05
Zalilah et al. (2006) [38] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SE)
♀ 490 ± 17.7 vs. 559 ± 13.6 vs. 689 ± 13.6
♂715 ± 28.7 vs. 763 ± 3.9 vs. 1,059 ± 26.1
p < 0.001
p < 0.001
Farah Wahida et al. (2011)
[31]
BMI (kg/m2) r=-0.03 p = NS
Teo et al. (2014) [37] Weight status Low (<1.5 h) vs. High (≥1.5 h)(ref) OR(95%CI)
♂ OR = 3.0 (1.1 – 8.1) ♀ OR = 1.7( 0.6 – 5.0)
p = 0.029
p = 0.302
Teo et al. (2014) [37] Waist circumference (cm) Low (<1.5 h) vs. High (≥1.5 h)(Mean, 95%, CI)
♂ 69.7 (67.4 - 71.9) vs. 67.9 (65.7-70.0)
♀ 65.7 (64.4- 67.0) vs. 64.6 (62.4-66.7)
p = 0.263
p = 0.370
Teo et al. (2014) [37] Body Fat (%) Low (<1.5 h)vs High (≥1.5 h)( mean, 95%, CI)
♂ 20.0 (18.2 - 21.9) vs. 15.9 (14.2-17.7)
♀ 32.6 (31.5 - 33.6) vs. 31.3 (29.6 - 33.0)
p = 0.002
p =0.219
Baharudin et al. (2014) [36] BMI (z-score) Physical inactivity NW (ref)
UW(OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.06 -1.31)
OW (OR=1.1 , 95% CI 0.99 -1.18)
Obese(OR=1.2 ,95% CI 1.11-1.37)
p = 0.003
p < 0.077
p < 0.001
Physical activity intensity Teo et al. (2014) [37] Weight status Low (<1 h) vs. High (≥1 h) (ref) OR(95%CI) ♂ OR=3.8 (1.4–10.1)
♀ OR=2.3 (0.7–7.8)
p = 0.008
p = 0.198
Teo et al. (2014) [37] Waist circumference (cm) Low (<1 h) vs. High (≥1 h) ( Mean, 95%, CI)
♂ 70.2 (67.8- 72.6) vs. 67.6 (65.6- 69.7)
♀ 65.9 (64.6- 67.1) vs. 63.5 (61.1- 66.0)
p= 0.120
p=0.103
Teo et al. (2014) [37] Body Fat (%) Low (<1 h) vs. High (≥1 h) (Mean, 95%, CI)
♂ 20.7 (18.7-22.6) vs. 15.8 (14.2-17.5)
♀32.5 (31.5-33.5) vs. 31.2 (29.2-33.2)
p =0.0001
p = 0.267
Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Normal WC vs.AO
High 54% vs. 52.3%
Moderate 31% vs. 30.2%
Low 12.9% vs. 17.4%
p = 0.492
Rezali et al. (2012) [42] Body weight status Non-OW vs. OW & obese (%)
Sedentary: 93.5 vs. 6.5
Light: 70.1 vs. 29.9
Moderately/vigorously: 38.9 vs. 61.1
p < 0.01
Zalilah et al. (2006) [38] Body weight status (light) UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SE)
♀1,156 ± 9.4 vs. 1,147 ± 7.2 vs. 1,148 ± 7.2
♂1,163 ± 9.4) vs. 1,180 ± 7.8 vs. 1,157 ± 8.6
p = NS
p = NS
(Moderate) UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SE)
♀ 245±8.2 vs. 252 ±6.3 vs. 251±6.3
♂ 207± 8.0 vs. 205±6.7 vs. 218 ±7.3
p = NS
p = NS
(High) UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SE)
♀ 40 ± 3.7 vs. 41 ± 2.8 vs. 41±2.8
♂ 69 ± 4.8 vs. 55 ± 4.0 vs. 65±4.4
p = NS
p = NS
Dan et al. (2011) [45] BMI (z-score) Low vs. Moderate/High n (%)
UW: 10 (34.5) vs.19 (65.5)
NW: 100 (35.7) vs. 180 (64.3)
OW 32 (35.2) vs. 59 (64.8) r=-0.043
p = NS
Sedentary behaviour Teo et al. (2014) [37] Weight status High (<3.5 h) vs. Low (≥3.5 (ref) OR (95%CI)
♂ 2.4 (0.9–6.3)
♀ 2.8 (1.0–7.5)
p = 0.06
p = 0.04
Cheah et al. (2011) [41] BMI (z-score) Normal vs. High
10.364 ± 5.44 vs. 10.66 ± 5.34
p = 0.729
  1. Abbreviations: ♂ Male, ♀ Female, UW underweight, NW Normal weight, OW overweight, BMI Body Mass Index, AO abdominal obesity, WC waist circumference, SE standard error, NS not statistically significant (p> 0.05)