Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of association between health-related determinants of diet and cardio metabolic health outcome

From: Dietary and physical activity patterns related to cardio-metabolic health among Malaysian adolescents: a systematic review

  Author, year Cardio metabolic health outcome Association P-value
Energy and nutrients
Energy intake Zalilah et al. (2006) [38] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SE)
♂ 2198±92 vs. 2133±77 vs. 2262±84
♀ 1916±74 vs. 1903±57 vs. 2138±57
p = NS
p < 0.05
Rezali et al. (2012) [42] BMI (z-score) Beta=0.001 p < 0.01
Majid et al.(2016) [30] BMI (kg/m2) NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese (Mean (95% CI)
1673.6 (1642.2–1705.0) vs. 1571.9 (1530.1–1613.7) vs. 1742 (1657.7–1826.5) vs. 1987 (1825.8–2149.3)
P < 0.001
Pon et al. (2004) [39] Body weight status OW vs. NW (Mean ± SD)
1518 ± 572 vs. 1636 ± 528
p=NS
Carbohydrates Rezali et al. (2012) [42] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SD)
198±69 vs. 197±64 vs. 211±65
p=NS
Zalilah et al. (2006) [38] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SE)
♂ 281±2 vs. 271±10 vs. 285±11
♀ 247±10 vs. 252±8 vs. 272±8
p=NS
p<0.05
Majid et al. (2016) [30] BMI (kg/m2) NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese (Mean (95% CI)
231.2 (226.3–236.1) vs. 218.5 (211.9–225.2) vs. 235.4 (224.1–246.8) vs. 269.7 (246.7–292.7)
p<0.001
Protein Rezali et al. (2012) [42] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SD)
60±24 vs. 62±19 vs. 67±20
p = NS
Zalilah et al. (2006) [38] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SE)
♂ 89±6 vs. 80±5 vs. 86±5
♀ 72±3 vs. 70±2 vs. 80±3
p =NS
p<0.05
Majid et al. (2016) [30] BMI (kg/m2) NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese mean (95% CI)
62.4 (60.9–63.8) vs. 56.9 (55.1–58.7) vs. 64.2 (60.4–67.9) vs.(62.5–78.5) vs. 70.5 ( 62.5–78.5)
p < 0.001
Fat Rezali et al. (2012) [42] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SD)
61 ± 23 vs. 66 ± 22 vs. 72 ± 22
NS
Zalilah et al. (2006) [38] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW (Mean ± SE)
♂ 80 ± 4 vs. 81±3 vs. 86 ± 4
♀ 70 ± 4 vs. 69 ± 3 vs. 81± 37
p =NS
p<0.05
Majid et al.(2016) [30] BMI (kg/m2) NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese (Mean (95% CI)
55.7 (54.4–57.0) vs. 52.0 (50.1–54.0) vs. 60.6 (56.7–64.5) vs. 70.3 (63.4–77.0)
p < 0.001
Cholesterol Majid et al.(2016) [30] BMI (kg/m2) NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese (mean (95% CI)
225.2 (216.5–233.8) vs. 212.1 (200.8–223.4) vs. 234.7 (209.9–259.5) vs. 262.5 (209.2–315.8)
p = NS
Saturated fatty acid Majid et al. (2016) [30] BMI (kg/m2) NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese (mean (95% CI)
10.9 (10.4–11.3) vs. 10.4 (9.8–11.0) vs. 11.9 (10.2–13.6) vs.13.1 (11.6–14.6)
p = NS
Unsaturated fatty acid Majid et al. (2016) [30] BMI (kg/m2) Unsaturated fatty acid
NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese (Mean (95% CI)
8.4 (8.1–8.8) vs.7.8 (7.4–8.2) vs. 8.3 (7.6–9.0) vs.9.9 (8.1–11.7)
p = NS
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese (Mean (95% CI)
6.1 (5.9–6.4) vs. 5.7 (5.4–6.0) vs. 6.3 (5.8–6.9) vs. 7.8 (6.3–9.3)
p = NS
Saturated (palm olein) vs. Polyunsaturated (soybean oil) cooking oils Marzuki et al.(1991) [46] Triglycerides (mmol/L) Baseline vs. Palm oil diet vs. Soy bean diet (Mean ± SE)
0.85 ± 0.04 vs. 0.74 ± 0.03 vs.1.09 ± 0.06
p < 0.001
Total chlesterol (mmol/L) Baseline vs. Palm oil diet vs. Soy bean diet (Mean ± SE)
3.89±0.09 vs. 3.86 ± 0.08 vs.3.95 ± 0.09
p = NS
HDL cholesterol (mmol/ L) Baseline vs. Palm oil diet vs. Soy bean diet (Mean ± SE)
1.39± 0.03 vs. 1.33± 0.03 vs. 1.32± 0.03
p = NS
LDL cholesterol (mmol/ L) Baseline vs. Palm oil diet vs. Soy bean diet (Mean ± SE)
2.37±0.09 vs. 2.37 ±0.08 vs. 2.41± 0.09
p = NS
Sugar Majid et al. (2016) [30] BMI (kg/m2) NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese (Mean (95% CI)
33.8 (32.3–35.3) vs. 33.6 (31.6–35.6) vs 35.3 (30.8–39.9) vs. 48.9 (39.0–58.7)
p < 0.001
Fiber Majid et al. (2016) [30] BMI (kg/m2) NW vs. UW vs. OW vs. Obese (Mean (95% CI)
2.9 (2.8–3.1) vs.2.8 (2.6–2.9) vs. 3.0 (2.7–3.4) vs4.1 (2.9–5.4)
p = NS
Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Normal vs. WC vs. AO (%)
Daily: 35.6 vs. 38.3
Weekly: 38 vs. 34.0
Rarely: 26.4 vs. 27.7
p = 0.479
Foods
Sugar sweetened beverages Loh et al. (2017) [33] WC (cm) r2(95% CI)
r2= 0.67 (69.1–72.5)
p < 0.001
Triglycerides
(mmol/ L)
r2(95% CI)
r2=0.1 (0.13–1.27)
p< 0.01
HDL cholesterol
(mmol/ L)
r2(95% CI)
r2=0.19 (0.99–2.29)
p < 0.001
LDL cholesterol
(mmol/ L)
r2(95% CI) r2=0.12 (2.04–4.31) p < 0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg) r2(95% CI)
r2=0.31 (100–107)
p < 0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) r2(95% CI)
r2=0.16 (59–64)
p < 0.001
Fasting blood glucose (mmol L) r2(95% CI)
r2=0.03 (4.51–5.36)
p < 0.001
Insulin (uUmL) r2(95% CI)
r2=0.42 (12.54–16.21)
p < 0.001
Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Higher SSB frequency
(OR=0.974, 95% CI 0.891, 1.064)
p = 0.557
Cheah et al. (2011) [41] BMI (z-score) NW vs. OW (%)
Every day: 4 vs. 12
Seldom: 40 vs. 52
p = 0.06
Legumes Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Higher legume frequency
(OR=1.102 95% CI 0.934, 1.105)
p = 0.717
Vegetarian diet Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Vegetarians vs. non-vegetarians
(OR=2.512, 95% CI 0.293, 21.526)
p = 0.401
Eating frequency
Meal frequency Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Irregular vs. regular meals
(OR=3.193, 95% CI 1.043, 9.774)
p = 0.042
Pon et al. (2004) [39] Body weight status Regular Mealtime
NW vs. OW (%)
Yes: 32 vs. 40
Sometimes: 42 vs. 34
No: 26 vs. 26
p = NS
Boon et al. (2012) [43] BMI (kg/m2) 3M+3S vs. 3M+2S vs. 3M+1S vs. 3M vs. <2M,2,3 S vs. <2M+0,1S (Mean ± SD)
19 ± 3.3 vs. 20.3 ± 4.6 vs. 19.5± 4.3 vs. 18.5 ± 3.2 vs. 18.9 ±3.7 vs. 20.5 ± 3.6
p > 0.05
Body weight status 3M+3S vs. 3M+2S vs. 3M+1S vs. 3M vs. <2M,2,3 S vs. <2M+0,1S (%)
UW : 16 vs.16.7 vs. 12.1 vs.25 vs. 13.6 vs. 8.3 NW 72 vs. 52.8 vs.69.7 vs.62.5 vs.81.8 vs.70.8 OW 8 vs. 22.2 vs. 12.1 vs. 12.5 vs. 0 vs. 20.8 Obese 4 vs. 8.3 vs. 6.1 vs. 0. 4.5 vs. 0
p > 0.05
Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Not daily vs. daily dinner (OR=0.516, 95% CI 0.179-1.488) p = 0.221
Nurul-Fadhilah et al.(2013) [34] BMI (z-score) Breakfast ≥5 times/week vs. <5 times/week (Mean ± SE)
♂- 0.19 ± 0.15 vs. 0.40 ± 0.19
♀ -0.39 ± 0.17 vs. 0.21 ± 0.18
p = 0.021
p = 0.017
WC (cm) Breakfast ≥5 times/week vs. <5 times/week (Mean ± SE)
♂ 66.3 ± 1.3 vs. 70.6 ±1.6
♀ 62.8 ± 1.2 vs. 67.6 ± 1.3
p = 0.006
p = 0.008
Body weight (Kg) Breakfast ≥5 times/week vs. <5 times/week (Mean ± SE)
♂50.0 ± 1.5 vs. 56.4 ± 1.9 ♀46.3 ± 1.5 vs. 51.0 ± 1.6
p = 0.010
p = 0.039
Body Fat (%) Breakfast ≥5 times/week vs. <5 times/week (Mean ± SE)
♂ 15.1±1.2 vs. 20.4±1.5
♀ 30.4±0.9 vs. 33.0±1.0
p = 0.006
p = 0.045
Meal frequency Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Normal WC vs. AO (%)
Breakfast Daily: 48.9 vs. 44.1 Not daily : 51.1 vs. 55.9
p = 0.380
Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Normal WC vs. AO (%)
Lunch Daily : 84.1 vs. 83 Not daily: 15.9 vs. 17.0
p = 0.771
Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Not daily vs. daily dinner
(OR=0.516, 95% CI: 0.179, 1.488)
p = 0.221
Pon et al. (2004) [39] Body weight status NW vs. OW (%)
Dinner daily Yes: 12 vs.. 10
Dinner sometimes : 42 vs. 52
No: 46 vs. 38
p = NS
Pon et al. (2004) [39] Body weight status Skipping Daily Meals
NW vs. OW (%)
Yes: 40 vs. 16
Sometimes: 48 vs. 54
No: 12 vs. 30
p < 0.05
Chin & Nasir (2009) [35] Body weight status UW vs. NW vs. OW (%)
Never skip 45.8 vs. 37.8 vs. 25.0 Skipped at least one meal: 50 vs. , 53.1 vs. 51.3 Skipped all 3 meals daily: 4.2 vs. 9.1 vs.23.7
p < 0.05
Snacks frequency Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Snacking Between Meals
Normal WC vs. AO (%)
Daily: 28.8 vs. 22.3 Weekly: 40.8 vs. 46.8 Rarely: 30.3 vs. 30.9
p = 0.371
Cheah et al. (2011) [41] BMI (z-score) Cereal-snacking frequency
NW vs. OW (% respondents)
Everyday: 27 vs. 32
Seldom: 40 vs. 20
p = 0.146
Cheah et al. (2011) [41] BMI (z-score) Junk food- snacking frequency
NW vs. OW (% respondents)
Everyday: 12 vs. 4
Seldom: 32 vs. 44
p = 0.212
Cheah et al. (2011) [41] BMI (z-score) NW vs. OW (% respondents)
Everyday: 8 vs. 0
Seldom: 39 vs. 59
p = 0.294
Chew et al. (2016) [40] Abdominal obesity Fast food-snacking frequency
Normal WC vs. AO (%)
Daily: 4.6 vs. 1.1
Weekly: 44.3 vs. 41.5
Rarely: 51.1 vs. 57.4
p = 0.193
Pon et al. (2004) [39] Body weight status Snacking Between Meals
NW vs. OW (%)
Yes: 58 vs. 64
No: 42 vs .36
p = NS
Frequency of family meals away from home Cynthia et al.2013 [44] Body weight status 0-2 times vs. 3-6 times vs.> 7 times (Mean ± SE)
50.09 ± 0.92 vs.47.26 ± 1.07 vs.49.94 ± 1.37
p = 0.881
BMI (kgm2) 0-2 times vs. 3-6 times vs.> 7 times (Mean ± SE)
19.75 ± 0.30 vs. 18.80 ± 0.35 vs. 19.84 ± 0.45
p = 0.933
  1. Abbreviations: ♂ Male, ♀ Female, UW Underweight, NW Normal weight, OW Overweight, BMI Body Mass Index, AO abdominal obesity, WC waist circumference, SE standard error, (3M+3S) 3 meals + 3 snacks, (3M+2S) 3 meals + 2 snacks, (3M+1S) 3 meals + one snack, (3M) 3 meals, (≤2M±2,3S) meal skippers consumed snacks frequently, (≤2M±0,1S) meal skippers consumed snacks only one time or never, NS not statistically significant (p> 0.05), SE standard error