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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Dietary and physical activity patterns related to cardio-metabolic health among Malaysian adolescents: a systematic review

Author, year Setting/Urbanity Sample Age (y) Mean ± SD Ethnicity Maternal education Income (RM) Diet measure PA measure Cardio metabolic health outcome Covariates
Zalilah et al. (2006) [38] NR 618
(♂ ♀)
13.1 ± 0.7 Malay, Chinese
Indian
NR (Mean ± SD) ♂ RM 1,002 ± 940
♀ RM 1,082 ± 1,123
3DD 3DD Body weight status Ethnicity, household income
Majid et al.(2016) [30]a Kuala Lumpur, ,Selangor, Perak/ Urban &rural 794
(♂ ♀)
12.9 ± 0.3 Malay, Chinese
Indian, Other
Secondary :66% 49 % low SES 7DH   BMI (kg/m2) NR
Loh et al. (2017) [33] Kuala Lumpur /Urban 873
(♂ ♀)
13a Malay, Chinese
Indian, Other
Secondary:61.4 % NR OQ (CNQ)   WC, TG, HDL
LDL, SB
DB. FBG Insulin
Sex, ethnicity, maternal education, PGS, physical activity, BMI, child nutrition questionnaire scores
Nurul-Fadhilah et al.(2013)
[34]
Kota Bharu
in Kelantan/Urban
236
(♂ ♀)
15.3 ± 1.9 Malay NR (Mean ± SD)
RM 2,191±2,553
FFQ   BMI (z score),
WC, Body Fat (%), Body weight
Age, household income, PGS, eating out, snacking, energy intake, PA
Chew et al. (2016) [40] Hulu Langat
in Selangor/ NR
832
(♂ ♀)
Median(IQR)
16 (15,16)
Malay, Chinese
Indian, Other
Secondary: 59% RM 2,001-5,000 (41%) FFQ IPAQ Abdominal obesity Sex, ethnicity, BMI
Pon et al. (2004) [39] Teluk Intan
in Perak/ Rural
100
(♀)
14.8 ± 1.2 Malay, Chinese,
Indian
NW: primary:44%
OW: secondary 48%
NW: RM 501-1000 (40%)
OW: < RM 500 (36%)
FFQ/
1*24R
  Body weight status NR
Chin & Nasir (2009) [35] Kuatan
in Pahang/ / NR
407
(♀)
15.3 ± 1.9 Malay, Chinese
Indian, Other
Secondary:57.0 % (Mean ± SD) RM 3,266 ± 2,566 OQ
(EBQ)
  Body weight status NR
Rezali et al. (2012) [42] Kajang
In Selangor/ Urban
382
(♂ ♀)
14.0 ± 0.8 Malay, Chinese
Indian
NR NR 2DD 2DD BMI (z-score),
Body weight status
Physical activity, body image
Boon et al. (2012) [43] Kuala Lumpur/
Urban
156
(♂ ♀)
14.1 ± 0.8 Malay, Chinese, Indian NR RM 2,000-5,999 (57%) 1*24R   BMI (kg/m2),body weight status NR
Cheah et al. (2011) [41] Kuching
in Sarawak/ NR
316
(♂ ♀)
Range:
13-17
Malay, Chinese
Indian, Other
Secondary: 63.9 % (Mean ± SD)
RM 3,653 ± 3,740
FFQ Media time BMI (z-score) NR
Cynthia et al.2013 [44] Puchong
in Selangor/ Urban
408
(♂ ♀)
13.2 ± 0.3 Malay, Chinese
Indian, Other
Secondary: 56 % 41.9% < RM 3999 OQ
(PESQ)
  Body weight status
BMI (kgm2)
Sex, ethnicity, household income, total energy intake
Marzuki et al.(1991) [46] NR/ NR 110
(♂)
Range:
16-17
Malay NR NR 1*24R   TG, TC, HDL, LDL NR
Baharudin et al. (2014) [36] NR / NR 40011
(♂ ♀)
13.4 ± 2.2 NR NR NR   PAQ-C BMI (z-score) Age, sex, BMI, breakfast intake,school session
Su et al. (2014) [29]a Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Perak/ Urban &rural 1327
(♂ ♀)
12.9 ± 0.3 Malay, Chinese,
Indian, Other
NR NR   PAQ-C BMI (kg/m2), WC,
Body fat (%)
Age, sex, ethnicity, place of residence
Teo et al. (2014) [37] Kota Bharu
in Kelantan/ NR
454
(♂ ♀)
15.3 ± 1.9 Malay, Chinese NR NR   PAQ-C Weight status, waist circumference, % body fat Age, PGS, ethnicity, SES, total energy intakes, fat density intakes , total SB levels (h/day)
Farah Wahida et al.(2011)
[31]
Kuantan
in Pahang/ NR
360
(♂ ♀)
13.2 ± 0.3 Malay, Chinese, Indian, Other 50.6 % Secondary NR   PAQ-C BMI NR
Dan et al. (2011) [45] Kuantan
in Pahang/ NR
400
(♂ ♀)
13.23 ± 0.31 Malay, Chinese
Indian
12.29 ± 3.39 (Mean± SD)years of education 38.5 %> RM 3000   PAQ-C BMI (z-score) NR
  1. Abbreviations: ♂ Male, ♀ Female, SES Socioeconomic status, NR Not reported, RM Malaysian ringgit (currency), BMI Body Mass Index, FFQ Food frequency questionnaire, X*24R 24 hour recall completed over X days, XDH X days diet history, OQ Oher Questionnaire, EBQ Eating Behaviours Questionnaire, CNQ Child Nutrition Questionnaire, PGS pubertal growth status, SB Sedentary behaviour, PA Physical Activity, PAQ-C Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, HDL High-density lipoprotein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, WC Waist Circumference, BP blood pressure, NW Normal weight, OW Overweight
  2. aMyHeART study