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Table 4 Adjusted associations of risk factors with a child being stunted at different levels of a hierarchical model (the number of missing values has been subtracted from the total N of 749)

From: Malnutrition and its associated factors: a cross-sectional study with children under 2 years in a suburban area in Angola

Variables Distal Model PR (CI 95%b) N = 631 p-value Intermediate Model PR (CI 95%) N = 649 p-value Proximal Model PR (CI 95%) N = 585 p-value
Mother’s place of birth
 Luanda Province 1.00      
 Another Province 0.99 (0.68–1.44) 0.946
Mother’s education level (years of school)
 5 years or more 1.00      
 1 to 4 years 1.11 (0.87–1.41) 0.421
Mother’s occupation
 Self-employed 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Housewife 0.90 (0.70–1.14) 0.379 0.94 (0.72–1.21) 0.608 0.88 (0.68–1.14) 0.325
 Other 0.63 (0.41–0.97) 0.037 0.55 (0.34–0.89) 0.014 0.67 (0.44–1.04) 0.076
Family socioeconomic score 0.97 (0.91–1.04) 0.416
Mother’s age (years) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.432
Garbage disposal
 Collected by the city    1.00    
 Not collected 0.92 (0.72–1.19) 0.529
Presence of mosquito nets (as observed)     
 No 1.00    
 Yes 1.00 (0.79–1.25) 0.981
Presence of hypochloryte
 No 1.00  
 Yes    1.11 (0.88–1.39) 0.384   
Child’s main caregiver
 Mother 1.00   1.00  
 Another person 1.42 (1.10–1.84) 0.007 1.19 (0.90–1.58) 0.228
Number of people in the household 0.98 (0.94–1.03) 0.393
Occurrence of death of other children
 No 1.00    
 Yes 1.14 (0.88–1.47) 0.313
Gestational age at the onset of prenatal care (in months) 1.08 (0.96–1.20) 0.199 1.07 (0.99–1.16) 0.099
Number of prenatal visits 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 0.602
Place of delivery
 At home 1.00   1.00  
 At the health service   0.81 (0.63–1.04) 0.093 0.84 (0.64–1.12) 0.216
Child’s age (in months)      1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.742
Child’s sex
 Male 1.00  
 Female   1.16 (0.91–1.47) 0.233
Birth weight
  < 2500 g 1.00  
  > =2500 g   0.80 (0.58–1.10) 0.167
Breastfeeding under 24 months
 No   1.00  
 Yes      0.84 (0.60–1.18) 0.317
Up to date weigth monitoring of the child
 No 1.00  
 Yes 1.01 (1.76–1.34) 0.951
Child with diarrhea in the last 15 days
 No   1.00  
 Yes      1.39 (1.07–1.87) 0.015
Child with fever in the last 15 days
 No 1.00  
 Yes 1.07 (0.81–1.41) 0.619
  1. aPR Prevalence Ratio, bCI 95% Confidence Interval 95%
  2. The entries in boldface are those with statistical significance (p value < 0.05)