Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusted associations of risk factors with a child being underweight at different levels of a hierarchical model (the number of missing values has been subtracted from the total N of 749)

From: Malnutrition and its associated factors: a cross-sectional study with children under 2 years in a suburban area in Angola

Variables Distal Model PRa (CI 95%b) N = 629 p-value Intermediate Model PR (CI 95%) N = 647 p-value Proximal Model PR (CI 95%) N = 549 p-value
Mother’s place of birth
 Luanda Province 1.00      
 Another Province 1.04 (0.57–1.92) 0.892
Mother’s education level (years of school)
 5 years or more 1.00      
 1 to 4 years 0.81 (0.53–1.24) 0.331
Mother’s occupation
 Self-employed 1.00      
 Housewife 1.12 (0.75–1.68) 0.571
 Other 0.62 (0.31–1.24) 0.176
Family socioeconomic score 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 0.155 0.92 (0.83–1.02) 0.113 0.97 (0.86–1.08) 0.559
Mother’s age (years)   1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.607   
Garbage disposal    
 Collected by the city    1.00    
 Not collected   0.90 (0.62–1.32) 0.602   
Presence of mosquito nets (as observed)
 No 1.00    
 Yes   0.94 (0.65–1.36) 0.731   
Presence of hypochloryte
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.30 (0.90–1.88) 0.162 1.21 (0.80–1.82) 0.369
Child’s main caregiver
 Mother 1.00   1.00  
 Another person    1.35 (0.89–2.03) 0.156 1.49 (0.95–2.35) 0.085
Number of people in the household 0.93 (0.85–1.01) 0.088 0.94 (0.85–1.03) 0.179
Occurrence of death of other children     
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes    1.45 (0.97–2.15) 0.070 1.52 (1.01–2.29) 0.045
Gestational age at the onset of prenatal care (in months) 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 0.021 1.17 (0.98–1.39) 0.084
Number of prenatal visits 1.13 (0.99–1.29) 0.081 1.10 (0.94–1.28) 0.242
Place of delivery
 At home 1.00  
 At the health service    0.88 (0.60–1.29) 0.510   
Child’s age (in months)    0.98 (0.95–1.02) 0.312
Child’s sex
 Male   1.00  
 Female   1.40 (0.94–2.09) 0.096
Birth weight
  < 2500 g 1.00  
  > =2500 g     1.02 (0.57–1.81) 0.956
Breastfeeding under 24 months
 No   1.00  
 Yes     0.73 (0.42–1.30) 0.270
Up to date weigth monitoring of the child
 No   1.00  
 Yes     1.07 (0.68–1.67) 0.774
Child with diarrhea in the last 15 days
 No 1.00  
 Yes      1.32 (0.85–2.07) 0.220
Child with fever in the last 15 days
 No 1.00  
 Yes      0.97 (0.61–1.53) 0.890
  1. aPR Prevalence Ratio, b CI 95% Confidence Interval 95%
  2. The entries in boldface are those with statistical significance (p value < 0.05)