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Table 2 Hazard Ratios for Improved Functional Ability Among Men According to Socioeconomic Status

From: Socioeconomic status and improvement in functional ability among older adults in Japan: a longitudinal study

Socioeconomic Status Disability Group at the Time of the Initial Assessment
Mild (n = 664) Moderate (n = 789) Severe (n = 484)
Crude Modela Crude Modela Crude Modela
HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI)
Education (years)
 ≤9 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 10–12 0.81 (0.43–1.53) 0.87 (0.45–1.69) 1.00 (0.69–1.45) 1.15 (0.77–1.71) 0.84 (0.49–1.44) 0.86 (0.49–1.51)
 13+ 1.51 (0.80–2.85) 1.58 (0.79–3.15) 0.88 (0.57–1.37) 1.10 (0.68–1.78) 1.91 (1.17–3.12)** 1.97 (1.12–3.45)*
Income (quartiles)
 Q1 (lowest) Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Q2 0.93 (0.43–1.98) 0.89 (0.39–2.01) 0.84 (0.50–1.39) 0.80 (0.46–1.37) 1.22 (0.64–2.32) 1.10 (0.54–2.26)
 Q3 0.95 (0.41–2.20) 1.00 (0.40–2.46) 0.75 (0.44–1.28) 0.71 (0.40–1.27) 0.94 (0.46–1.93) 0.93 (0.42–2.09)
 Q4 (highest) 1.40 (0.66–2.95) 1.64 (0.74–3.65) 0.84 (0.49–1.42) 0.76 (0.44–1.31) 1.20 (0.62–2.32) 1.02 (0.47–2.22)
Occupation
 Manual Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Non-Manual 0.95 (0.57–1.59) 1.02 (0.57–1.82) 0.80 (0.56–1.13) 0.78 (0.53–1.15) 1.27 (0.81–2.01) 1.19 (0.71–2.00)
  1. **P < .01, *P < .05. aAdjusted for age, other socioeconomic status, marital status, living status, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and municipality. CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; Q, quartile; Ref., referent category. Estimates for missing categories of SES indicators were not reported