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Table 1 Characteristics of the Participants

From: Socioeconomic status and improvement in functional ability among older adults in Japan: a longitudinal study

Characteristic All Improved Functional Ability
n = 4149 n = 811 (19.5%)
Gender, n (%)
 Men 1937 346 (17.9)
 Women 2212 465 (21.0)
Education (years), n (%)
 ≤9 2227 441 (19.8)
 10–12 945 172 (18.2)
 13+ 460 100 (21.7)
 Unknown 517 98 (19.0)
Income (quartiles), n (%)
 Q1 (lowest) 739 142 (19.2)
 Q2 740 139 (18.8)
 Q3 640 109 (17.0)
 Q4 (highest) 701 151 (21.5)
 Unknown 1329 270 (20.3)
Occupation, n (%)
 Manual 1551 316 (20.4)
 Non-manual 1145 219 (19.1)
 Unknown 1453 276 (19.0)
Marital status, n (%)a
 Single/divorced/widowed 1454 319 (21.9)
 Married/cohabiting 2330 424 (18.2)
 Unknown 365 68 (18.6)
Living alone, n (%)
 N 3281 635 (19.4)
 Y 490 103 (21.0)
 Unknown 378 73 (19.3)
Comorbidity, n (%)b
 0 1029 219 (21.3)
 ≥1 2408 474 (19.7)
 Unknown 712 118 (16.6)
Depressive symptoms, n (%)
 N 1605 314 (19.6)
 Y 1427 263 (18.4)
 Unknown 1117 234 (20.9)
Disability group, n (%)c
 Mild (requiring LTC-1) 1653 194 (11.7)
 Moderate (requiring LTC-2/3) 1605 391 (24.4)
 Severe (requiring LTC-4/5) 891 226 (25.4)
  1. aSingle = never married
  2. bComorbidity = heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or hypertension
  3. cDisability group = level of disability at the time of the initial assessment
  4. LTC long-term care, N no, Q quartile, Y yes