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Table 2 Univariate and multivariable analyses of markers of indoor air pollution by selected sociodemographic, geographic and ecology variables: 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (N = 11,012)

From: Geographic and socio-economic variation in markers of indoor air pollution in Nepal: evidence from nationally-representative data

Variable Clean Fuel Use (n = 3282, 34%) Cooking in separate kitchen (n = 4229, 55.5%) No Indoor Smoking (n = 5992, 56.9%) No Indoor Air Pollution (n = 1705, 17.0%)
Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)
a Sex of house hold head
 Male Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Female 1.06 (0.93, 1.20) 1.85 (1.52, 2.26) 0.96 (0.85, 1.10) 1.54 (1.32, 1.79) 1.53 (1.38, 1.68) 1.64 (1.47, 1.84) 1.04 (0.90, 1.21) 2.18 (1.79, 2.65)
b Age of household head
 15–24 Reference Reference Reference Reference
 25–34 0.64 (0.47, 0.85) 0.58 (0.42, 0.81) 1.97 (1.45, 2.67) 2.26 (1.65, 3.07) 0.78 (0.59, 1.03) 0.93 (0.71, 1.23) 1.25 (0.94, 1.67) 1.59 (1.07, 2.37)
 35–44 0.49 (0.36, 0.66) 0.44 (0.31, 0.62) 2.98 (2.16, 4.11) 3.78 (2.74, 5.21) 0.66 (0.50, 0.87) 0.88 (0.67, 1.15) 1.37 (1.02, 1.84) 2.12 (1.44, 3.12)
 45–54 0.45 (0.33, 0.62) 0.45 (0.32, 0.63) 3.51 (2.57, 4.79) 5.03 (3.68, 6.87) 0.41 (0.31, 0.54) 0.57 (0.42, 0.77) 1.25 (0.91, 1.70) 2.10 (1.33, 3.32)
 55–64 0.33 (0.24, 0.46) 0.42 (0.29, 0.62) 2.79 (1.99, 3.91) 4.85 (3.43, 6.86) 0.38 (0.28, 0.50) 0.61 (0.45, 0.82) 0.99 (0.69, 1.44) 2.37 (1.48, 3.80)
  > =65 0.32 (0.22, 0.45) 0.55 (0.36, 0.83) 2.87 (2.02, 4.08) 5.91 (4.10, 8.52) 0.40 (0.30, 0.54) 0.70 (0.52, 0.95) 1.04 (0.71, 1.54) 3.50 (2.13, 5.76)
c Education level of household head
 No education, preschool Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Primary (Grade 1–5) 1.96 (1.69, 2.28) 2.08 (1.69, 2.55) 1.43 (1.23, 1.67) 1.81 (1.51, 2.17) 0.99 (0.88, 1.12) 0.96 (0.85, 1.09) 1.68 (1.39, 2.03) 1.80 (1.42, 2.28)
 Secondary (Grade 5–10) 4.71 (4.06, 5.46) 3.01 (2.35, 3.86) 2.10 (1.81, 2.45) 2.54 (2.11, 3.05) 1.88 (1.65, 2.15) 1.45 (1.24, 1.69) 4.43 (3.61, 5.44) 3.30 (2.52, 4.32)
 Higher (Above grade 10) 15.77 (12.31, 20.19) 6.61 (4.75, 9.18) 2.09 (1.59, 2.76) 2.39 (1.84, 3.11) 4.43 (3.67, 5.35) 2.87 (2.32, 3.54) 10.83 (8.45, 13.88) 6.13 (4.64, 8.11)
d Wealth
 Quintile 5 Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Quintile 4 0.39 (0.30, 0.50) 0.42 (0.33, 0.54) 0.20 (0.15, 0.28) 0.26 (0.18, 0.36) 0.78 (0.67, 0.92) 0.80 (0.69, 0.93) 0.28 (0.22, 0.35) 0.33 (0.26, 0.42)
 Quintile 3 0.09 (0.07, 0.13) 0.11 (0.08, 0.15) 0.22 (0.17, 0.29) 0.29 (0.21, 0.39) 0.54 (0.44, 0.67) 0.61 (0.50, 0.74) 0.09 (0.07, 0.12) 0.12 (0.09, 0.15)
 Quintile 2 0.02 (0.01, 0.02) 0.02 (0.01, 0.03) 0.26 (0.20, 0.35) 0.34 (0.25, 0.48) 0.36 (0.29, 0.45) 0.44 (0.35, 0.55) 0.02 (0.01, 0.02) 0.02 (0.01, 0.03)
 Quintile 1 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 0.13 (0.10, 0.18) 0.19 (0.14, 0.26) 0.23 (0.18, 0.28) 0.28 (0.22, 0.35) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.01)
e Residency
 Urban Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Rural 0.15 (0.10, 0.22) 0.03 (0.02, 0.05) 0.62 (0.49, 0.77) 0.67 (0.53, 0.84) 0.76 (0.63, 0.91) 0.88 (0.74, 1.05) 0.23 (0.16, 0.33) 0.20 (0.15, 0.27)
e Provinces
 Province 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Province 2 0.44 (0.27, 0.73) 0.26 (0.15, 0.44) 0.35 (0.24, 0.51) 0.27 (0.18, 0.41) 1.14 (0.83, 1.58) 1.12 (0.81, 1.53) 0.46 (0.28, 0.74) 0.35 (0.22, 0.53)
 Province 3 3.74 (2.29, 6.09) 5.20 (3.22, 8.42) 0.64 (0.45, 0.91) 0.49 (0.34, 0.72) 0.83 (0.61, 1.11) 0.63 (0.49, 0.82) 1.42 (0.95, 2.14) 0.86 (0.61, 1.22)
 Province 4 1.65 (1.02, 2.66) 2.21 (1.37, 3.58) 0.99 (0.70, 1.40) 0.85 (0.59, 1.22) 1.08 (0.81, 1.43) 1.03 (0.78, 1.36) 1.25 (0.83, 1.86) 1.22 (0.85, 1.76)
 Province 5 1.26 (0.76, 2.09) 1.19 (0.69, 2.05) 0.85 (0.58, 1.24) 0.75 (0.48, 1.17) 1.24 (0.93, 1.66) 1.19 (0.92, 1.53) 1.08 (0.68, 1.71) 0.92 (0.63, 1.35)
 Province 6 0.28 (0.16, 0.48) 1.37 (0.81, 2.34) 0.78 (0.53, 1.16) 1.43 (0.91, 2.22) 0.36 (0.25, 0.51) 0.46 (0.33, 0.65) 0.22 (0.13, 0.38) 0.94 (0.62, 1.41)
 Province 7 0.49 (0.27, 0.91) 0.78 (0.44, 1.41) 0.79 (0.54, 1.14) 1.12 (0.77, 1.65) 0.54 (0.39, 0.75) 0.59 (0.43, 0.79) 0.40 (0.20, 0.82) 0.61 (0.34, 1.08)
e Developmental region
 Eastern Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Central 2.64 (1.70, 4.11) 2.62 (1.59, 4.30) 0.62 (0.45, 0.85) 0.48 (0.33, 0.68) 1.06 (0.83, 1.36) 0.90 (0.71, 1.14) 1.39 (0.95, 2.04) 0.99 (0.69, 1.42)
 Western 2.07 (1.33, 3.23) 2.18 (1.34, 3.54) 0.99 (0.71, 1.38) 0.78 (0.54, 1.12) 1.42 (1.12, 1.79) 1.31 (1.05, 1.63) 1.66 (1.11, 2.47) 1.41 (0.98, 2.03)
 Mid-western 0.77 (0.46, 1.27) 2.47 (1.37, 4.43) 0.97 (0.68, 1.38) 1.45 (0.94, 2.23) 0.61 (0.47, 0.78) 0.73 (0.57, 0.94) 0.59 (0.37, 0.96) 1.46 (0.92, 2.32)
 Far-western 0.64 (0.35, 1.16) 1.19 (0.67, 2.12) 0.88 (0.61, 1.27) 1.26 (0.87, 1.84) 0.58 (0.43, 0.78) 0.64 (0.48, 0.84) 0.51 (0.25, 1.03) 0.85 (0.47, 1.53)
e Ecological region
 Mountain Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Hill 4.11 (1.47, 11.49) 2.17 (0.86, 5.47) 1.03 (0.70, 1.50) 0.74 (0.50, 1.10) 2.19 (1.59, 3.02) 1.73 (1.33, 2.25) 3.77 (1.48, 9.61) 1.44 (0.78, 2.67)
 Terai 3.08 (1.15, 8.27) 0.61 (0.24, 1.54) 0.92 (0.62, 1.38) 0.56 (0.36, 0.85) 3.18 (2.33, 4.34) 2.35 (1.79, 3.07) 4.44 (1.77, 11.10) 1.24 (0.66, 2.31)
e Eco-developmental region
 Central hill Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Eastern mountain 0.05 (0.01, 0.20) 0.18 (0.04–0.75) 1.74 (0.88, 3.42) 4.15 (1.84, 9.37) 0.57 (0.40, 0.83) 1.08 (0.78, 1.50) 0.13 (0.03, 0.54) 1.12 (0.33, 3.77)
 Central mountain 0.17 (0.03, 0.91) 0.37 (0.09–1.49) 0.61 (0.30, 1.26) 0.92 (0.51, 1.64) 0.39 (0.18, 0.86) 0.57 (0.33, 0.96) 0.29 (0.07, 1.18) 0.88 (0.46, 1.68)
 Western mountain 0.04 (0.01, 0.18) 0.09 (0.02–0.43) 1.27 (0.77, 2.10) 3.36 (2.02, 5.59) 0.35 (0.23, 0.52) 0.58 (0.40, 0.82) 0.09 (0.02, 0.37) 0.42 (0.13, 1.40)
 Eastern hill 0.03 (0.01, 0.08) 0.08 (0.04–0.19) 0.96 (0.58, 1.60) 2.09 (1.22, 3.58) 0.68 (0.41, 1.12) 1.24 (0.76, 2.02) 0.11 (0.05, 0.29) 0.82 (0.35, 1.90)
 Western hill 0.28 (0.17, 0.46) 0.29 (0.18–0.46) 1.54 (1.10, 2.15) 1.95 (1.42, 2.69) 1.25 (0.94, 1.66) 1.63 (1.23, 2.16) 0.69 (0.47, 1.01) 1.28 (0.91, 1.80)
 Mid-western hill 0.06 (0.03, 0.10) 0.19 (0.11–0.32) 1.23 (0.84, 1.79) 3.31 (2.26, 4.84) 0.60 (0.42, 0.85) 1.06 (0.76, 1.47) 0.15 (0.08, 0.28) 1.13 (0.67, 1.91)
 Far-western hill 0.01 (0.00, 0.03) 0.03 (0.01–0.07) 0.84 (0.52, 1.36) 2.13 (1.35, 3.35) 0.53 (0.34, 0.83) 1.01 (0.68, 1.51) 0.03 (0.01, 0.09) 0.28 (0.10, 0.84)
 Eastern terai 0.25 (0.15, 0.42) 0.11 (0.06–0.19) 1.62 (1.07, 2.44) 1.45 (0.92, 2.28) 1.33 (0.99, 1.79) 1.53 (1.15, 2.02) 0.77 (0.50, .17) 0.87 (0.59, 1.30)
 Central terai 0.14 (0.08, 0.26) 0.08 (0.04–0.14) 0.61 (0.42, 0.89) 0.66 (0.45, 0.98) 1.43 (0.99, 2.06) 1.91 (1.36, 2.70) 0.47 (0.27, 0.79) 0.68 (0.45, 1.04)
 Western terai 0.42 (0.22, 0.82) 0.19 (0.09–0.38) 1.01 (0.59, 1.71) 0.84 (0.49, 1.44) 1.95 (1.39, 2.74) 2.27 (1.71, 3.02) 1.15 (0.67, 1.97) 1.19 (0.75, 1.89)
 Mid-western terai 0.29 (0.15, 0.56) 0.36 (0.16–0.84) 1.40 (0.77, 2.53) 2.00 (0.94, 4.25) 0.90 (0.63, 1.30) 1.21 (0.88, 1.66) 0.62 (0.37, 1.06) 1.33 (0.76, 2.32)
 Far-western terai 0.22 (0.12, 0.42) 0.19 (0.09–0.36) 1.74 (1.20, 2.52) 2.97 (1.95, 4.52) 0.68 (0.44, 1.07) 0.83 (0.55, 1.25) 0.53 (0.26, 1.11) 0.99 (0.53, 1.85)
  1. NA: Could not be estimated due to low cell frequency for that category
  2. Significant odds ratio are bolded
  3. aMultivariable model was adjusted for age, education level of the house hold head and household wealth quintiles
  4. bMultivariable model was adjusted for sex, education level of the house hold head and household wealth quintiles
  5. cMultivariable model was adjusted for age, sex, and household wealth quintiles
  6. dMultivariable model was adjusted for age, sex, and education level of the house hold head
  7. eMultivariable model was adjusted for age, sex, education level of the house hold head and household wealth quintiles