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Table 1 Distribution of markers of indoor air pollution by key socio-demographic, geographic and ecological variables: 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey

From: Geographic and socio-economic variation in markers of indoor air pollution in Nepal: evidence from nationally-representative data

Variable Fuel type   Cooking practice   Indoor smoking   Indoor air pollution
Clean (3282, 34%) Unclean (7730, 66%) p-value Separate kitchen (4229, 55.5%) No separate kitchen (3188, 44.5%) p-value No (5992, 56.9%) Yes (5048, 43.1%) p-value No (1705, 17.0%) Yes (9335, 83.0%) p-value
n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)  
Sex of household head
 Male 2175 (67.9) 5254 (69.1) 0.4118 2811 (68.2) 2097 (67.4) 0.5803 3761 (64.8) 3690 (73.8) < 0.001 1132 (67.9) 6319 (68.8) 0.5724
 Female 1107 (32.1) 2476 (30.9)   1418 (31.8) 1091 (32.6)   2231 (35.2) 1358 (26.2)   573 (32.1) 3016 (31.2)  
Age of household head in, years
 15–25 278 (8.48) 321 (4.02) < 0.001 163 (3.7) 301 (9.7) < 0.001 412 (7.1) 202 (3.8) < 0.001 85 (4.9) 529 (5.8) 0.0166
 25–35 787 (24.4) 1444 (18.2)   809 (18.5) 743 (24.4)   1417 (23.5) 820 (16.1)   363 (21.2) 1874 (20.1)  
 35–45 781 (23.7) 1774 (23.0)   976 (23.5) 664 (20.4)   1503 (25.2) 1052 (20.5)   442 (26.0) 2113 (22.6)  
 45–55 681 (20.8) 1684 (21.7)   1002 (23.9) 581 (17.7)   1150 (18.8) 1218 (24.7)   383 (22.2) 1985 (21.2)  
 55–65 448 (12.8) 1392 (18.3)   721 (16.7) 501 (15.5)   830 (13.9) 1010 (19.7)   244 (14.1) 1596 (16.9)  
  > 65 307 (9.85) 1115 (14.8)   558 (13.6) 398 (12.3)   680 (11.5) 746 (15.2)   188 (11.7) 1238 (13.4)  
Education level of household head
 No education, preschool 642 (18.6) 3775 (49.6) < 0.001 1439 (31.4) 1484 (45.5) < 0.001 2078 (33.8) 2345 (46.0) < 0.001 289 (15.9) 4134 (43.8) < 0.001
 Primary (Grade 1–5) 585 (18.3) 1976 (24.9)   950 (22.1) 756 (22.4)   1167 (19.4) 1394 (26.7)   238 (14.8) 2323 (24.2)  
 Secondary (Grade 5–10) 1231 (37.4) 1608 (21.2)   1254 (31.5) 646 (21.7)   1798 (30.3) 1048 (21.9)   668 (39.0) 2178 (24.2)  
 Higher (Above grade 10) 818 (25.3) 366 (4.27)   583 (14.8) 300 (10.2)   948 (16.4) 251 (5.1)   509 (30.2) 690 (7.7)  
 Don’t know 6 (0.36) 5 (0.08)   3 (0.2) 2 (0.2)   1 (0.0) 10 (0.4)   1 (0.1) 10 (0.2)  
Wealth quintile
 Quintile 1 19 (0.47) 2744 (30.2) < 0.001 943 (17.1) 1290 (32.3) < 0.001 1002 (13.2) 1764 (29.1) < 0.001 4 (0.2) 2762 (24.1) < 0.001
 Quintile 2 137 (3.26) 2289 (29.0)   926 (19.5) 630 (18.9)   1152 (17.4) 1277 (24.0)   39 (1.9) 2390 (24.0)  
 Quintile 3 616 (15.7) 1579 (22.3)   675 (15.3) 511 (17.7)   273 (20.8) 927 (19.2)   220 (11.0) 1980 (21.9)  
 Quintile 4 1147 (36.3) 777 (12.5)   681 (18.8) 576 (23.6)   1303 (24.5) 637 (15.6)   505 (28.5) 1435 (19.1)  
 Quintile 5 1363 (44.3) 341 (5.94)   1004 (29.3) 181 (7.5)   1262 (24.1) 443 (12.1)   937 (58.4) 768 (10.9)  
Residency
 Urban 2824 (86.3) 4129 (48.5) < 0.001 2867 (68.3) 1824 (57.0) < 0.001 3985 (64.3) 2993 (57.7) 0.0033 1458 (85.1) 5520 (56.6) < 0.001
 Rural 458 (13.7) 3601 (51.5)   1362 (31.7) 1364 (43.0)   2007 (35.7) 2055 (42.3)   247 (14.9) 3815 (43.4)  
Provinces
 Province 1 530 (15.7) 1140 (19.4) < 0.001 637 (17.8) 353 (12.9) < 0.001 1001 (18.8) 674 (17.3) < 0.001 335 (19.6) 1340 (17.9) < 0.001
 Province 2 285 (8.36) 1336 (23.3)   270 (7.9) 401 (16.5)   998 (20.0) 628 (16.0)   174 (10.0) 1452 (19.9)  
 Province 3 819 (40.9) 818 (13.5)   706 (26.6) 645 (30.2)   828 (21.8) 811 (24.2)   343 (32.5) 1296 (20.9)  
 Province 4 561 (12.7) 930 (9.52)   695 (13.3) 417 (9.8)   906 (11.4) 592 (9.7)   300 (13.7) 1198 (10.0)  
 Province 5 577 (16.5) 1050 (16.1)   736 (19.2) 490 (16.5)   1040 (18.3) 591 (13.5)   324 (18.6) 1307 (15.8)  
 Province 6 240 (1.70) 1245 (7.62)   630 (6.7) 472 (6.2)   572 (3.4) 916 (8.6)   110 (1.6) 1378 (6.4)  
 Province 7 270 (4.16) 1211 (10.4)   555 (8.5) 410 (7.9)   647 (6.4) 836 (10.8)   119 (4.0) 1364 (9.2)  
Ecological region
 Mountain 114 (2.80) 797 (9.31) 0.0012 436 (8.7) 335 (8.6) 0.6546 303 (4.3) 608 (10.7) < 0.001 43 (2.1) 868 (8.1) 0.0005
 Hill 1550 (53.1) 3745 (43.1)   2340 (55.7) 1756 (53.4)   2740 (44.2) 2571 (49.5)   723 (45.7) 4588 (46.7)  
 Terai 1618 (44.1) 3188 (47.6)   1453 (35.7) 1097 (38.0)   2949 (51.4) 1869 (39.8)   939 (52.2) 3879 (45.2)  
Developmental region
 Eastern 565 (16.8) 1578 (26.9) < 0.001 654 (18.3) 400 (14.9) 0.0004 1249 (23.6) 899 (23.2) < 0.001 354 (20.7) 1794 (24.0) < 0.001
 Central 1069 (48.2) 1716 (29.3)   959 (34.0) 999 (44.8)   1578 (37.0) 1214 (34.2)   498 (41.4) 2294 (34.6)  
 Western 936 (23.8) 1487 (18.5)   1109 (24.5) 714 (20.2)   1570 (23.5) 864 (16.2)   526 (27.1) 1908 (19.0)  
 Mid-western 442 (7.05) 1738 (14.8)   952 (14.7) 665 (12.3)   948 (9.6) 1235 (15.5)   208 (6.8) 1975 (13.2)  
 Far-western 270 (4.16) 1211 (10.4)   555 (8.5) 410 (7.9)   647 (6.4) 836 (10.8)   119 (4.0) 1364 (9.2)  
Eco-developmental region
 Eastern mountain 11 (0.48) 137 (2.56) < 0.001 76 (2.5) 38 (1.5) 0.0002 62 (1.4) 86 (2.5) < 0.001 5 (0.5) 143 (2.1) < 0.001
 Central mountain 55 (1.59) 168 (2.39)   77 (1.9) 100 (3.3)   74 (1.3) 149 (3.2)   19 (1.1) 204 (2.3)  
 Western mountain 48 (0.72) 492 (4.36)   283 (4.3) 197 (3.7)   167 (1.7) 373 (5.0)   19 (0.5) 521 (3.6)  
 Eastern hill 30 (1.11) 508 (9.05)   193 (5.9) 174 (6.6)   252 (5.2) 286 (7.8)   19 (1.4) 519 (7.3)  
 Central hill 699 (36.6) 568 (9.31)   575 (22.7) 504 (24.6)   676 (18.5) 593 (18.8)   285 (28.1) 984 (16.7)  
 Western hill 577 (13.3) 1053 (12.2)   806 (16.7) 461 (11.8)   1009 (13.7) 632 (11.2)   305 (14.2) 1336 (12.3)  
 Mid-western hill 233 (1.88) 1176 (8.49)   583 (7.5) 437 (6.7)   616 (4.8) 796 (8.1)   108 (1.9) 1304 (7.1)  
 Far-western hill 11 (0.15) 440 (4.04)   183 (2.9) 180 (3.7)   187 (2.0) 264 (3.7)   6 (0.2) 445 (3.2)  
 Eastern terai 524 (15.2) 933 (15.3)   385 (9.9) 188 (6.7)   935 (17.0) 527 (13.0)   330 (18.8) 1132 (14.6)  
 Central terai 315 (10.0) 980 (17.6)   307 (9.5) 395 (16.9)   828 (17.2) 472 (12.2)   194 (12.3) 1106 (15.6)  
 Western terai 359 (10.5) 434 (6.31)   303 (7.8) 253 (8.4)   561 (9.7) 232 (5.0)   221 (12.9) 572 (6.6)  
 Mid-western terai 192 (5.01) 326 (4.34)   226 (5.2) 135 (4.0)   281 (4.3) 237 (4.9)   91 (4.7) 427 (4.5)  
 Far-western terai 228 (3.44) 515 (4.00)   232 (3.3) 126 (2.1)   344 (3.1) 401 (4.7)   103 (3.5) 642 (3.9)