Skip to main content

Table 1 Distribution of markers of indoor air pollution by key socio-demographic, geographic and ecological variables: 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey

From: Geographic and socio-economic variation in markers of indoor air pollution in Nepal: evidence from nationally-representative data

Variable

Fuel type

 

Cooking practice

 

Indoor smoking

 

Indoor air pollution

Clean (3282, 34%)

Unclean (7730, 66%)

p-value

Separate kitchen (4229, 55.5%)

No separate kitchen (3188, 44.5%)

p-value

No (5992, 56.9%)

Yes (5048, 43.1%)

p-value

No (1705, 17.0%)

Yes (9335, 83.0%)

p-value

n (%)

n (%)

 

n (%)

n (%)

 

n (%)

n (%)

 

n (%)

n (%)

 

Sex of household head

 Male

2175 (67.9)

5254 (69.1)

0.4118

2811 (68.2)

2097 (67.4)

0.5803

3761 (64.8)

3690 (73.8)

< 0.001

1132 (67.9)

6319 (68.8)

0.5724

 Female

1107 (32.1)

2476 (30.9)

 

1418 (31.8)

1091 (32.6)

 

2231 (35.2)

1358 (26.2)

 

573 (32.1)

3016 (31.2)

 

Age of household head in, years

 15–25

278 (8.48)

321 (4.02)

< 0.001

163 (3.7)

301 (9.7)

< 0.001

412 (7.1)

202 (3.8)

< 0.001

85 (4.9)

529 (5.8)

0.0166

 25–35

787 (24.4)

1444 (18.2)

 

809 (18.5)

743 (24.4)

 

1417 (23.5)

820 (16.1)

 

363 (21.2)

1874 (20.1)

 

 35–45

781 (23.7)

1774 (23.0)

 

976 (23.5)

664 (20.4)

 

1503 (25.2)

1052 (20.5)

 

442 (26.0)

2113 (22.6)

 

 45–55

681 (20.8)

1684 (21.7)

 

1002 (23.9)

581 (17.7)

 

1150 (18.8)

1218 (24.7)

 

383 (22.2)

1985 (21.2)

 

 55–65

448 (12.8)

1392 (18.3)

 

721 (16.7)

501 (15.5)

 

830 (13.9)

1010 (19.7)

 

244 (14.1)

1596 (16.9)

 

  > 65

307 (9.85)

1115 (14.8)

 

558 (13.6)

398 (12.3)

 

680 (11.5)

746 (15.2)

 

188 (11.7)

1238 (13.4)

 

Education level of household head

 No education, preschool

642 (18.6)

3775 (49.6)

< 0.001

1439 (31.4)

1484 (45.5)

< 0.001

2078 (33.8)

2345 (46.0)

< 0.001

289 (15.9)

4134 (43.8)

< 0.001

 Primary (Grade 1–5)

585 (18.3)

1976 (24.9)

 

950 (22.1)

756 (22.4)

 

1167 (19.4)

1394 (26.7)

 

238 (14.8)

2323 (24.2)

 

 Secondary (Grade 5–10)

1231 (37.4)

1608 (21.2)

 

1254 (31.5)

646 (21.7)

 

1798 (30.3)

1048 (21.9)

 

668 (39.0)

2178 (24.2)

 

 Higher (Above grade 10)

818 (25.3)

366 (4.27)

 

583 (14.8)

300 (10.2)

 

948 (16.4)

251 (5.1)

 

509 (30.2)

690 (7.7)

 

 Don’t know

6 (0.36)

5 (0.08)

 

3 (0.2)

2 (0.2)

 

1 (0.0)

10 (0.4)

 

1 (0.1)

10 (0.2)

 

Wealth quintile

 Quintile 1

19 (0.47)

2744 (30.2)

< 0.001

943 (17.1)

1290 (32.3)

< 0.001

1002 (13.2)

1764 (29.1)

< 0.001

4 (0.2)

2762 (24.1)

< 0.001

 Quintile 2

137 (3.26)

2289 (29.0)

 

926 (19.5)

630 (18.9)

 

1152 (17.4)

1277 (24.0)

 

39 (1.9)

2390 (24.0)

 

 Quintile 3

616 (15.7)

1579 (22.3)

 

675 (15.3)

511 (17.7)

 

273 (20.8)

927 (19.2)

 

220 (11.0)

1980 (21.9)

 

 Quintile 4

1147 (36.3)

777 (12.5)

 

681 (18.8)

576 (23.6)

 

1303 (24.5)

637 (15.6)

 

505 (28.5)

1435 (19.1)

 

 Quintile 5

1363 (44.3)

341 (5.94)

 

1004 (29.3)

181 (7.5)

 

1262 (24.1)

443 (12.1)

 

937 (58.4)

768 (10.9)

 

Residency

 Urban

2824 (86.3)

4129 (48.5)

< 0.001

2867 (68.3)

1824 (57.0)

< 0.001

3985 (64.3)

2993 (57.7)

0.0033

1458 (85.1)

5520 (56.6)

< 0.001

 Rural

458 (13.7)

3601 (51.5)

 

1362 (31.7)

1364 (43.0)

 

2007 (35.7)

2055 (42.3)

 

247 (14.9)

3815 (43.4)

 

Provinces

 Province 1

530 (15.7)

1140 (19.4)

< 0.001

637 (17.8)

353 (12.9)

< 0.001

1001 (18.8)

674 (17.3)

< 0.001

335 (19.6)

1340 (17.9)

< 0.001

 Province 2

285 (8.36)

1336 (23.3)

 

270 (7.9)

401 (16.5)

 

998 (20.0)

628 (16.0)

 

174 (10.0)

1452 (19.9)

 

 Province 3

819 (40.9)

818 (13.5)

 

706 (26.6)

645 (30.2)

 

828 (21.8)

811 (24.2)

 

343 (32.5)

1296 (20.9)

 

 Province 4

561 (12.7)

930 (9.52)

 

695 (13.3)

417 (9.8)

 

906 (11.4)

592 (9.7)

 

300 (13.7)

1198 (10.0)

 

 Province 5

577 (16.5)

1050 (16.1)

 

736 (19.2)

490 (16.5)

 

1040 (18.3)

591 (13.5)

 

324 (18.6)

1307 (15.8)

 

 Province 6

240 (1.70)

1245 (7.62)

 

630 (6.7)

472 (6.2)

 

572 (3.4)

916 (8.6)

 

110 (1.6)

1378 (6.4)

 

 Province 7

270 (4.16)

1211 (10.4)

 

555 (8.5)

410 (7.9)

 

647 (6.4)

836 (10.8)

 

119 (4.0)

1364 (9.2)

 

Ecological region

 Mountain

114 (2.80)

797 (9.31)

0.0012

436 (8.7)

335 (8.6)

0.6546

303 (4.3)

608 (10.7)

< 0.001

43 (2.1)

868 (8.1)

0.0005

 Hill

1550 (53.1)

3745 (43.1)

 

2340 (55.7)

1756 (53.4)

 

2740 (44.2)

2571 (49.5)

 

723 (45.7)

4588 (46.7)

 

 Terai

1618 (44.1)

3188 (47.6)

 

1453 (35.7)

1097 (38.0)

 

2949 (51.4)

1869 (39.8)

 

939 (52.2)

3879 (45.2)

 

Developmental region

 Eastern

565 (16.8)

1578 (26.9)

< 0.001

654 (18.3)

400 (14.9)

0.0004

1249 (23.6)

899 (23.2)

< 0.001

354 (20.7)

1794 (24.0)

< 0.001

 Central

1069 (48.2)

1716 (29.3)

 

959 (34.0)

999 (44.8)

 

1578 (37.0)

1214 (34.2)

 

498 (41.4)

2294 (34.6)

 

 Western

936 (23.8)

1487 (18.5)

 

1109 (24.5)

714 (20.2)

 

1570 (23.5)

864 (16.2)

 

526 (27.1)

1908 (19.0)

 

 Mid-western

442 (7.05)

1738 (14.8)

 

952 (14.7)

665 (12.3)

 

948 (9.6)

1235 (15.5)

 

208 (6.8)

1975 (13.2)

 

 Far-western

270 (4.16)

1211 (10.4)

 

555 (8.5)

410 (7.9)

 

647 (6.4)

836 (10.8)

 

119 (4.0)

1364 (9.2)

 

Eco-developmental region

 Eastern mountain

11 (0.48)

137 (2.56)

< 0.001

76 (2.5)

38 (1.5)

0.0002

62 (1.4)

86 (2.5)

< 0.001

5 (0.5)

143 (2.1)

< 0.001

 Central mountain

55 (1.59)

168 (2.39)

 

77 (1.9)

100 (3.3)

 

74 (1.3)

149 (3.2)

 

19 (1.1)

204 (2.3)

 

 Western mountain

48 (0.72)

492 (4.36)

 

283 (4.3)

197 (3.7)

 

167 (1.7)

373 (5.0)

 

19 (0.5)

521 (3.6)

 

 Eastern hill

30 (1.11)

508 (9.05)

 

193 (5.9)

174 (6.6)

 

252 (5.2)

286 (7.8)

 

19 (1.4)

519 (7.3)

 

 Central hill

699 (36.6)

568 (9.31)

 

575 (22.7)

504 (24.6)

 

676 (18.5)

593 (18.8)

 

285 (28.1)

984 (16.7)

 

 Western hill

577 (13.3)

1053 (12.2)

 

806 (16.7)

461 (11.8)

 

1009 (13.7)

632 (11.2)

 

305 (14.2)

1336 (12.3)

 

 Mid-western hill

233 (1.88)

1176 (8.49)

 

583 (7.5)

437 (6.7)

 

616 (4.8)

796 (8.1)

 

108 (1.9)

1304 (7.1)

 

 Far-western hill

11 (0.15)

440 (4.04)

 

183 (2.9)

180 (3.7)

 

187 (2.0)

264 (3.7)

 

6 (0.2)

445 (3.2)

 

 Eastern terai

524 (15.2)

933 (15.3)

 

385 (9.9)

188 (6.7)

 

935 (17.0)

527 (13.0)

 

330 (18.8)

1132 (14.6)

 

 Central terai

315 (10.0)

980 (17.6)

 

307 (9.5)

395 (16.9)

 

828 (17.2)

472 (12.2)

 

194 (12.3)

1106 (15.6)

 

 Western terai

359 (10.5)

434 (6.31)

 

303 (7.8)

253 (8.4)

 

561 (9.7)

232 (5.0)

 

221 (12.9)

572 (6.6)

 

 Mid-western terai

192 (5.01)

326 (4.34)

 

226 (5.2)

135 (4.0)

 

281 (4.3)

237 (4.9)

 

91 (4.7)

427 (4.5)

 

 Far-western terai

228 (3.44)

515 (4.00)

 

232 (3.3)

126 (2.1)

 

344 (3.1)

401 (4.7)

 

103 (3.5)

642 (3.9)