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Table 2 Risk factors for stunting among children 0-59 months, Demographic and Health Survey, Rwanda, 2014-15

From: Risk factors for stunting among children under five years: a cross-sectional population-based study in Rwanda using the 2015 Demographic and Health Survey

Characteristics Full logistic regression model Final logistic regression modela
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Individual-level factors
Child sex
 Females Ref   Ref  
 Males 1.61 (1.30–1.99) < 0.01 1.51 (1.25–1.82) < 0.01
Child’s age group
 < 6 months Ref   Ref  
 6–23 months 4.43 (2.74–7.16) < 0.01 4.91 (3.16–7.62) < 0.01
 24–59 months 5.40 (3.33–8.76) < 0.01 6.34 (4.07–9.89) < 0.01
Child parity - First child
 Yes Ref  
 No 1.07 (0.83–1.38) 0.62  
Child weight at birth
>  2.5 Kg Ref   Ref  
 <  2.5 Kg 2.00 (1.24–3.23) 0.01 2.12 (1.39–3.23) < 0.01
History of diarrhea in two weeks prior to the survey
 No Ref  
 Yes 1.14 (0.85–1.52) 0.38  
Maternal/household factors    
Mother height (cm)
 ≥145 cm Ref   Ref  
 < 145 cm 2.81 (1.56–5.08) < 0.01 3.27 (1.89–5.64) < 0.01
Mother’s highest educational level
 Secondary or higher Ref   Ref  
 Primary 1.49 (1.03–2.15) 0.04 1.71 (1.25–2.34) < 0.01
 No education 1.83 (1.18–2.85) 0.01 2.00 (1.37–2.92) < 0.01
Intake of parasite drugs for mothers during pregnancy
 Yes Ref   Ref  
 No 1.31 (1.06–1.61) 0.01 1.29 (1.09–1.53) < 0.01
Duration of intake of daily iron tablets
or syrup by mothers during pregnancy
 ≥30 days Ref  
 0–29 days 1.17 (0.93–1.46) 0.17  
Breastfeeding within the first hour after birth
 Yes Ref  
 No 1.27 (0.96–1.67) 0.09  
Household wealth index
 High (rich) Ref   Ref  
 Middle 1.36 (1.00–1.85) 0.05 1.45 (1.12–1.86) < 0.01
 Low (poor) 1.98 (1.49–2.63) < 0.01 1.82 (1.45–2.29) < 0.01
Household size (number of household members)
 5 people or less Ref  
 > 5 1.01 (0.82–1.25) 0.78  
Access to improved water at household
 Yes Ref  
 No 1.19 (0.94–1.51) 0.15  
Toilet (Sanitation facility)
 Improved Ref  
 Not improved 0.91 (0.72–1.15) 0.44  
Community level characteristics    
Province of residence
 Kigali City Ref   Ref  
 South 1.27 (0.79–2.04) 0.32 1.26 (0.84–1.90) 0.26
 West 1.24 (0.75–2.04) 0.39 1.34 (0.88–2.05) 0.17
 North 1.15 (0.69–1.91) 0.59 1.11 (0.72–1.73) 0.49
 East 1.04 (0.66–1.64) 0.86 1.14 (0.79–1.64) 0.69
Household location - Altitude
 Lowland (< 1641.5 m) Ref   Ref  
 Highland (≥1641.5 m) 1.22 (0.92–1.63) 0.17 1.29 (0.99–1.67) 0.05
Household type of residence
 Urban Ref  
 Rural 1.18 (0.86–1.62) 0.29   
  1. aSex, province and altitude were forced into the final model regardless of OR results in the full model
  2. Final model excluded variables with p value > 0.10
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