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Table 1 Socio-demographic and economic characteristics of children 0-59 months, Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), Rwanda, 2014-15

From: Risk factors for stunting among children under five years: a cross-sectional population-based study in Rwanda using the 2015 Demographic and Health Survey

Characteristics Total   Stunting  
   Yes No p value
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Individual-level factors
Child sex
 Females 1769 (49%) 581 (33%) 1188 (67%)  
 Males 1825 (51%) 774 (42%) 1051 (58%) < 0.01
Child’s age group
 < 6 months 332 (9%) 35 (11%) 297 (89%)  
 6–23 months 1171 (33%) 425 (36%) 745 (64%)
 24–59 months 2091 (58%) 894 (43%) 1197 (57%) < 0.01
Child parity - First child
 Yes 995 (28%) 345 (35%) 650 (65%)  
 No 2598 (72%) 1009 (39%) 1589 (61%) 0.03
Child weight at birth
 ≥ 2.5 Kg 3156 (95%) 1131 (36%) 2025 (64%)  
 <  2.5 Kg 173 (5%) 94 (54%) 79 (46%) < 0.01
History of diarrhea - two weeks
prior to the survey
 No 3131 (87%) 1147 (37%) 1984 (63%)  
 Yes 462 (13%) 207 (45%) 255 (55%) < 0.01
Maternal/household factors       
Mother height (cm)
 ≥ 145 cm 3506 (98%) 1296 (37%) 2210 (63%)  
 < 145 cm 88 (2%) 59 (67%) 29 (33%) < 0.01
Mother’s highest educational level
 Secondary/higher 463 (13%) 90 (19%) 373 (81%)  
 Primary 2615 (73%) 1021 (39%) 1594 (61%)
 No education 516 (14%) 245 (47%) 271 (53%) < 0.01
History of intake of parasite drugs
for mothers during pregnancy
 Yes 1374 (50%) 449 (33%) 925 (67%)  
 No 1396 (50%) 547 (39%) 849 (61%) < 0.01
Duration of intake of daily iron tablets
or syrup by mothers during pregnancy
 ≥ 30 days 1532 (71%) 531 (35%) 1001 (65%)  
 0–29 days 621 (29%) 250 (40%) 371 (60%) 0.01
Breastfeeding within the first hour after birth
 Yes 2839 (79%) 1046 (37%) 1793 (63%)  
 No 742 (21%) 304 (41%) 439 (59%) 0.06
Household wealth index
  High (rich) 1211 (34%) 299 (25%) 912 (75%)  
 Middle 700 (19%) 264 (38%) 436 (62%)
 Low (Poor) 1682 (47%) 791 (47%) 891 (53%) < 0.01
Number of household members
 5 people or less 2176 (61%) 826 (38%) 1350 (62%)  
 > 5 1417 (39%) 529 (37%) 888 (63%) 0.73
Availability of improved water
at household
 Yes 2551 (72%) 902 (35%) 1649 (65%)  
 No 1014 (28%) 444 (44%) 570 (56%) < 0.01
Toilet (Sanitation facility)
 Improved 2603 (73%) 945 (36%) 1658 (64%)  
 Not improved 958 (27%) 400 (42%) 558 (58%) < 0.01
Community level factors
Province of residence
 Kigali City 406 (11%) 92 (23%) 314 (77%)  
 South 853 (24%) 347 (41%) 506 (59%)
 West 856 (24%) 381 (45%) 475 (55%)
 North 500 (14%) 194 (39%) 306 (61%)
 East 978 (27%) 341 (35%) 637 (65%) < 0.01
Household location - Altitude
 Lowland (< 1641.5 m) 1866 (52%) 606 (32%) 1260 (68%)  
 Highland (≥1641.5 m) 1728 (48%) 749 (43%) 979 (57%) < 0.01
Household type of residence
 Urban 591 (16%) 140 (24%) 451 (76%)  
 Rural 3003 (84%) 1215 (40%) 1788 (60%) < 0.01
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