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Table 4 Relationship between sun behaviour and prediction variables according to gender, age, education and income with means, standard deviation (SD) and p-values based on Pearson’s correlation. Non-significant results are denoted N.s

From: Beliefs, attitudes and perceptions to sun-tanning behaviour in the Norwegian population: a cross-sectional study using the health belief model

Variables (Range) Sun behaviour (0–7) Perceived severity (0–50) Perceived susceptibility (0–30) Benefits of protection behaviour (0–24) Barriers to protection behaviour (0–56) Self-efficacy (0–40) Empowerment (0–50) Benefits of tanning (0–24)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Gender p < 0.01 p < 0.01 N.s N.s p < 0.01 N.s N.s p < 0.01
 Female 2.6 (0.9) 37.2 (6.8) 11.4 (5.3) 18.3 (3.2) 18.4 (8.7) 37.0 (9.6) 38.4 (7.5) 16.9 (3.0)
 Male 2.9 (1.0) 33.9 (7.6) 11.0 (5.2) 18.0 (3.5) 21.8 (9.0) 35.4 (9.5) 38.5 (7.4) 16.2 (2.7)
Age N.s p < 0.05 p < 0.01 N.s p < 0.01 p < 0.01 p < 0.01 N.s
 18–29 years 2.7 (1.0) 33.2 (7.6) 13.0 (5.3) 17.6 (3.4) 23.3 (9.3) 32.9 (9.4) 35.4 (8.0) 17.1 (3.1)
 30–39 years 2.6 (0.9) 35.9 (7.4) 12.7 (4.7) 18.3 (3.1) 21.0 (8.2) 36.3 (8.2) 38.7 (7.4) 16.2 (3.2)
 40–49 years 2.7 (1.0 36.4 (7.7) 12.8 (4.9) 17.6 (3.8) 20.5 (9.4) 35.7 (9.2) 38.6 (7.6) 16.4 (2.8)
 50–59 years 2.8 (0.8) 36.7 (6.6) 10.3 (4.2) 19.1 (2.9) 17.9 (8.3) 38.4 (9.3) 39.4 (7.1) 17.0 (2.8)
 60–69 years 2.9 (0.9) 37.0 (7.0) 9.8 (5.6) 18.6 (3.3) 17.2 (8.3) 37.6 (9.0) 39.5 (7.3) 16.5 (2.8)
 70+ years 2.6 (1.0) 35.2 (7.1) 8.2 (5.0) 17.9 (3.1) 18.8 (9.1) 37.5 (11,8) 38.9 (6.3) 16.6 (2.5)
Educational level p < 0.01 N.s N.s p < 0.05 N.s p < 0.01 p < 0.01 p < 0.01
 Primary school 2.8 (0,6) 36.9 (6.6) 10.5 (6.4) 17.5 (3.9) 19.1 (8.5) 34.7 (12.6) 35.2 (9.8) 17.1 (2.8)
 High school 2.8 (1.0) 34.7 (7.5) 11.0 (5.5) 17.8 (3.5) 21.1 (9.1) 33.8 (10.4) 36.3 (7.9) 17.2 (3.1)
 Diploma or vocational secondary education 2.9 (1.0) 35.5 (6.7) 10.7 (5.6) 17.5 (3.1) 20.7 (9.5) 35.2 (8.8) 38.1 (7.2) 16.7 (2.8)
 University/College 1–4 years (bachelor’s degree, cand.mag, or equivalent) 2.7 (0.9) 35.9 (7.6) 11.8 (5.1) 18.5 (3.3) 19.4 (9.0) 37.5 (9.1) 39.2 (7.3) 16.6 (2.9)
 University/College 4 years or more (Master’s degree or equivalent) 2.6 (0.9) 36.26 (7.3) 11.0 (5.0) 18.5 (3.1) 18.5 (8.5) 36.8 (9.6) 39.6 (6.6) 16.2 (2.6)
 University/College 6 years or more (PhD or equivalent) 2.5 (1.2) 35.11 (6.7) 11.8 (4.4) 18.7 (3,5) 20.4 (6.4) 41.3 (7.4) 41.6 (4.7) 14.9 (2.8)
 Other         
Income N.s N.s N.s N.s p < 0.05 p < 0.01 p < 0.01 p < 0.05
 Under 200.000 2.7 (1.1) 33.9 (7.6) 12.8 (5.2) 17.2 (4.0) 22.6 (9.1) 33.1 (8.6) 34.6 (8.0) 16.8 (3.2)
 200,000–299,999 NOK 2.6 (1.0) 36.4 (7.4) 10.9 (5.3) 18.8 (3.3) 21.9 (10.1) 36.9 (11.4) 37.2 (9.0) 16.8 (2.6)
 300,000–399,999 NOK 2.7 (0.9) 37.1 (7.0) 9.5 (5.3) 18.2 (2.8) 18.4 (9.4) 35.9 (9.6) 38.3 (7.5) 17.3 (2.9)
 400,000–499,999 NOK 2.7 (0.9) 36.3 (7.1) 11.4 (5.2) 18.7 (3.1) 19.0 (8.4) 37.6 (9.9) 38.6 (6.8) 16.4 (3.1)
 500,000–749,999 NOK 2.8 (0.9) 35.3 (7.6) 11.4 (5.2) 18.1 (3.4) 19.7 (8.7) 36.3 (9.2) 39.5 (6.7) 16.4 (2.7)
 750,000–999,999 NOK 2.7 (0.8) 35.2 (6.8) 11.6 (5.0) 17.8 (3.5) 18.7 (9.3) 36.9 (8.4) 41.7 (5.8) 15.9 (2.5)
 1,000,000 NOK + 2.9 (0.8) 35.9 (7.2) 11.8 (3.9) 18.3 (3.4) 19.8 (7.2) 39.6 (9.1) 40.8 (7.9) 16.6 (2.9)