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Table 1 Characteristics of BMI at IP and BMI class at age 2 by mean or percent

From: Associations of grandparental diabetes mellitus with grandchild BMI status

Characteristics BMI at IP   BMI class at age 2   
  N (%) Mean SD P N (%) Normal Overweight Obesity χ 2 P
Maternal grandfather     0.029      5.04 0.080
 normal 1962 (93.7) 18.36 1.56   2303 (93.9) 1867 (81.1) 291 (12.6) 145 (6.3)   
 DM 131 (6.3) 18.66 1.58   149 (6.1) 112 (75.2) 21 (14.1) 16 (10.7)   
Maternal grandmother     0.205      3.12 0.211
 normal 2068 (96.1) 18.37 1.57   2416 (96.1) 1954 (80.9) 304 (12.6) 158 (6.5)   
 DM 85 (3.9) 18.58 1.33   97 (3.9) 74 (76.3) 18 (18.6) 5 (5.2)   
Paternal grandfather     0.499      0.53 0.768
 normal 1693 (93.7) 18.36 1.55   1978 (93.6) 1585 (80.1) 263 (13.3) 130 (6.6)   
 DM 113 (6.3) 18.47 1.71   135 (6.4) 111 (82.2) 15 (11.1) 9 (6.7)   
Paternal grandmother     0.888      0.38 0.827
 normal 1826 (95.6) 18.36 1.55   2139 (95.7) 1722 (80.5) 283 (13.2) 134 (6.3)   
 DM 85 (4.4) 18.39 1.42   96 (4.3) 78 (81.3) 11 (11.5) 7 (7.3)   
Infant gender     < 0.01      5.08 0.079
 boy 1147 (51.0) 18.57 1.53   1350 (51.4) 1077 (79.8) 193 (14.3) 80 (5.9)   
 girl 1101 (49.0) 18.16 1.56   1276 (48.6) 1036 (81.2) 149 (11.7) 91 (7.1)   
Birth term     0.174      1.64 0.441
 preterm 80 (3.6) 18.61 1.50   107 (4.1) 81 (75.7) 17 (15.9) 9 (8.4)   
 in time 2168 (96.4) 18.36 1.56   2519 (95.9) 2032 (80.7) 325 (12.9) 162 (6.4)   
Maternal education     0.732      0.08 0.962
 high school and below 877 (39.0) 18.36 1.54   1056 (40.2) 847 (80.2) 139 (13.2) 70 (6.6)   
 college and above 1371 (61.0) 18.37 1.57   1570 (59.8) 1266 (80.6) 203 (12.9) 101 (6.4)   
GDM     0.477      11.72 < 0.01
 no 1963 (87.3) 18.36 1.55   2285 (87.0) 1862 (81.5) 282 (12.3) 141 (6.2)   
 yes 285 (12.7) 18.43 1.63   341 (13.0) 251 (73.6) 60 (17.6) 30 (8.8)   
HDCP     0.075      4.72 0.095
 no 2110 (93.9) 18.36 1.55   2457 (93.6) 1986 (80.8) 311 (12.7) 160 (6.5)   
 yes 138 (6.1) 18.60 1.63   168 (6.4) 126 (75) 31 (18.5) 11 (6.5)   
Production times     0.047      4.79 0.091
 first 2040 (90.7) 18.35 1.57   2388 (90.9) 1934 (81.0) 304 (12.7) 150 (6.3)   
 others 208 (9.3) 18.58 1.44   238 (9.1) 179 (75.2) 38 (16.0) 21 (8.8)   
Delivery mode     0.004      10.22 < 0.01
 vaginal delivery 1114 (49.6) 18.28 1.47   1297 (49.4) 1076 (83.0) 147 (11.3) 74 (5.7)   
 caesarean section 1134 (50.4) 18.47 1.63   1328 (50.6) 1036 (78.0) 195 (14.7) 97 (7.3)   
Feeding pattern     0.052      9.07 0.059
Complementary feeding 625 (28.3) 18.35 1.47   739 (28.7) 602 (81.5) 95 (12.9) 42 (5.7)   
Bottle feeding 510 (23.1) 18.24 1.43   581 (22.6) 448 (77.1) 95 (16.4) 38 (6.5)   
breastfeeding 1076 (48.7) 18.44 1.66   1254 (48.7) 1020 (81.3) 146 (11.6) 88 (7.0)   
Monthly income     0.321      11.83 0.019
 < 360.5 594 (26.4) 18.40 1.54   705 (26.8) 553 (78.4) 114 (16.2) 38 (5.4)   
 360.5–576.8 939 (41.7) 18.41 1.57   1107 (42.2) 889 (80.3) 134 (12.1) 84 (7.6)   
 > 576.8 715 (31.8) 18.30 1.56   814 (31.0) 671 (82.4) 94 (11.5) 49 (6.0)   
Maternal age     0.965      1.96 0.743
 18–24 632 (28.1) 18.39 1.57   748 (28.5) 606 (81.0) 97 (13.0) 45 (6.0)   
 25–29 1205 (53.6) 18.37 1.57   1403 (53.4) 1122 (80.0) 190 (13.5) 91 (6.5)   
 ≥30 411 (18.3) 18.37 1.51   475 (18.1) 385 (81.1) 55 (11.6) 35 (7.4)   
Birth weight     < 0.01      23.29 < 0.01
 normal 2032 18.31 1.53   2355 (89.7) 1920 (81.5) 291 (12.4) 144 (6.1)   
 low birth weight 40 18.14 1.24   58 (2.2) 48 (82.8) 6 (10.3) 6 (6.9)   
 macrosomia 176 19.16 1.77   212 (8.1) 144 (67.9) 45 (21.2) 23 (10.8)   
Residence     0.565      4.77 0.57
 city proper 1808 (80.4) 18.37 1.57   2096 (79.8) 1691 (80.7) 274 (13.1) 131 (6.3)   
 suburbs 239 (10.6) 18.48 1.52   283 (10.8) 230 (81.3) 32 (11.3) 21 (7.4)   
 county town 40 (1.8) 18.21 1.96   37 (1.4) 29 (78.4) 7 (18.9) 1 (2.7)   
 countryside 161 (7.2) 18.29 1.54   210 (8.0) 163 (77.6) 29 (13.8) 18 (8.6)   
Paternal BMI   23.44 3.56        
Maternal BMI   20.93 2.85        
GWG   17.93 5.01        
  1. BMI body mass index, IP infancy peak, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, GWG gestational weight gain, HDCP hypertensive disorder complication pregnancy