Skip to main content

Table 2 Smoking status at the final follow-up (CDAH-2, 2009–11) by SEP life-course models, Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study, Australia*

From: Socioeconomic position over the life course from childhood and smoking status in mid-adulthood: results from a 25-year follow-up study

Life course model Never smokers (n = 904) Former smokers (n = 375) Current smokers (n = 210) P-value
Individual time period (sensitive/ critical period model)     0.023
 Baseline, % (n)
  Non-manual 77.3 (699) 79.2 (297) 69.5 (146)  
  Manual 22.7 (205) 20.8 (78) 30.5 (64)  
 CDAH-1, % (n)     < 0.001
  Non-manual 86.5 (782) 80.8 (303) 70.5 (148)  
  Manual 13.5 (122) 19.2 (72) 29.5 (62)  
 CDAH-2, % (n)     < 0.001
  Non-manual 88.1 (796) 83.7 (314) 72.9 (153)  
  Manual 12.0 (108) 16.3 (61) 27.1 (57)  
Accumulation model: No. of times manual, % (n)     < 0.001
 0 time manual 66.7 (603) 64.3 (241) 49.1 (103)  
 1 time manual 21.9 (198) 19.7 (74) 24.3 (51)  
 2 times manual 8.0 (72) 11.5 (43) 17.1 (36)  
 3 times manual 3.4 (31) 4.5 (17) 9.5 (20)  
Social mobility model, % (n)
 Intra-generational (adult) mobility     0.002
  Stable (non-)manual 91.8 (830) 89.1 (334) 82.4 (173)  
  Moving downwards 3.3 (30) 4.0 (15) 7.6 (16)  
  Moving up wards 4.9 (44) 6.9 (26) 10.0 (21)  
 Any mobility     0.042
  Stable (non-)manual/variable 73.8 (667) 74.1 (278) 69.1 (145)  
  Moving downwards 7.7 (70) 10.7 (40) 13.8 (29)  
  Moving up wards 18.5 (167) 15.2 (57) 17.1 (36)  
  1. CDAH: childhood determinants of adult health
  2. * Some summed proportions not 100% due to rounding off
  3. All bolded P-values are statistically significant at the 0.05 level
  4. The intra-generational (adult) mobility model assumes that any downwards change in SEP in adulthood would be harmful to the outcome and any upwards mobility in adulthood would be beneficial, independent of childhood social background. Any mobility model hypothesises that all downward trend changes in the life course are equally harmful to the outcome and all upward shifts are equally beneficial