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Table 1 Characteristics of participants at the final follow-up (CDAH-2, 2009–11) and socioeconomic trajectories over the early life course, Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study, Australia*

From: Socioeconomic position over the life course from childhood and smoking status in mid-adulthood: results from a 25-year follow-up study

Sociodemographic characteristics Total (n = 1489)
Age (years), Mean (SD) 36.5 (2.6)
Males, % (n) 36.7 (546)
Marital status, % (n)
 Single 14.4 (214)
 Married/living as married 81.4 (1211)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 4.2 (62)
Weight status, % (n)
 Normal (< 25) 50.3 (708)
 Overweight (25–29.9) 32.9 (463)
 Obese (≥30) 16.8 (237)
Smoking status, % (n)
 Never smokers 60.7 (904)
 Former smokers 25.2 (375)
 Current smokers 14.1 (210)
Education, % (n)
 With post-school qualification 80.2 (1187)
 Without post-school qualification 19.9 (294)
SEIFA disadvantage, % (n)
 A relative lack of disadvantage 51.9 (768)
 Relatively disadvantaged 48.1 (711)
SEP characteristics
 Baseline, % (n)
  Non-manual (0) 76.7 (1142)
  Manual [1] 23.3 (347)
 CDAH-1, % (n)
  Non-manual (0) 82.8 (1233)
  Manual [1] 17.2 (256)
 CDAH-2, % (n)
  Non-manual (0) 84.8 (1263)
  Manual [1] 15.2 (226)
SEP trajectories across three time periods, % (n)
Baseline CDAH-1 CDAH-2  
0 0 0 63.6 (947)
1 0 0 15.1 (225)
0 1 0 3.8 (56)
0 0 1 2.8 (42)
1 1 0 2.4 (35)
1 0 1 1.3 (19)
0 1 1 6.5 (97)
1 1 1 4.6 (68)
Accumulation model: number of times manual, % (n)
 0 63.6 (947)
 1 21.7 (323)
 2 10.1 (151)
 3 4.6 (68)
Social mobility model
 Intra-generational (adult) mobility, % (n)
  Stable (non-)manual 89.8 (1337)
  Moving downwards 4.1 (61)
  Moving upwards 6.1 (91)
 Any mobility, % (n)
  Stable (non-)manual/variable 73.2 (1090)
  Moving downwards 9.3 (139)
  Moving upwards 17.5 (260)
  1. CDAH: childhood determinants of adult health; SEIFA: socioeconomic index for areas; SEP: socioeconomic position
  2. * Sample size varied because of missing data (range, 1405-1489). Some summed proportions not 100% due to rounding off; non-manual occupation level denoted by 0 and manual occupation level denoted by 1
  3. Defined by body mass index
  4. The intra-generational (adult) mobility model assumes that any downwards change in SEP in adulthood would be harmful to the outcome and any upwards mobility in adulthood would be beneficial, independent of childhood social background. Any mobility model hypothesises that all downward trend changes in the life course are equally harmful to the outcome and all upward shifts are equally beneficial