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Table 4 Intentional and unintentional drowning by season, day of death, day of week and country of birth, Australia 2006–2014

From: Pattern of intentional drowning mortality: a total population retrospective cohort study in Australia, 2006–2014

  Intentional drowning Unintentional drowning Intentional drowning versus unintentional drowning
Total cases (N = 450) Annual mortality rate per 100,000 Relative Risk (CI) Total cases (N = 1765) Annual mortality rate per 100,000 Relative Risk (CI) χ2 (p-value)
Season
 Summer 139 0.28 1.5 (1.1–1.9) 692 1.42 1.6 (1.5–1.9) 10.6 (p = 0.001)a
 Autumn 95 0.19 1* 422 0.85 1* 1.6 (p = 0.236)
 Winter 102 0.20 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 252 0.50 0.6 (0.5–0.7) 18.8 (p < 0.001)a
 Spring 114 0.23 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 399 0.81 1.0 (0.8–1.1) 1.5 (p = 0.234)
Day of death
 Sunday 63 0.03 1.4 (0.9–2.0) 294 0.15 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 1.9 (p = 0.196)
 Monday 75 0.04 1.6 (1.1–2.4) 211 0.11 0.7 (0.6–0.8) 7.1 (p = 0.009)
 Tuesday 65 0.03 1.4 (1.0–2.1) 257 0.13 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.0 (p = 1.000)
 Wednesday 76 0.04 1.7 (1.2–2.4) 229 0.12 0.7 (0.6–0.8) 4.6 (p = 0.038)
 Thursday 65 0.03 1.4 (1.0–2.1) 236 0.12 0.7 (0.62–0.9) 0.4 (p = 0.539)
 Friday 60 0.03 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 214 0.11 0.7 (0.6–0.8) 0.5 (p = 0.472)
 Saturday 46 0.02 1* 324 0.16 1* 17.5 (p < 0.001)b
Day of week
 Weekend 109 0.19 1* 618 3.82 1* 18.9 (p < 0.001)c
 Weekday 341 0.24 3.1 (2.5–3.9) 1147 1.14 1.9 (1.7–2.1)  
Country of birth
 Australia 261 0.18 1* 1070 0.18 1* 1.1 (p = 0.332)
 Overseas 189 0.36 2.0 (1.7–2.4) 695 0.36 1.8 (1.6–2.0)  
  1. Data Source: ABS Cause of Death Unit Record File 2006–2014
  2. *Where RR was calculated, the group with the lowest rate was used as the reference point
  3. aA modified Bonferroni test has been applied, and statistical significance is deemed at p < 0.013
  4. bA modified Bonferroni test has been applied, and statistical significance is deemed at p < 0.007
  5. cStatistical significance is deemed at p < 0.05