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Table 2 Odds Ratio of Binary factors on Open Defecation among Households

From: Progress in sanitation among poor households in Kenya: evidence from demographic and health surveys

Factor KDHS 2003 KDHS 2008 KDHS 2014
Gender of household head 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.7 (0.6–0.9) 1.6 (1.5–1.8)
Poverty status of household 13.3 (10.2–17.4) 16.9 (11.5–24.8) 58.8 (46.3–74.6)
Absence of farm animals 0.4 (0.3–0.6) 0.4 (0.3–0.5)
Educational level of household head 6.0 (4.8–7.4) 6.7 (5.3–8.5) 9.7 (8.5–11.1)
Living in an urban area 0.15 (0.08–0.27) 0.05 (0.02–0.11) 0.08 (0.06–0.1)